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Project Management 2016 - Pinto - Quiz - Chapter 6

MBA Project Management

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2016

Case study guides and online resources (2016)

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto

 

 

 

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4e (Pinto)

Chapter 6   Project Team Building, Conflict, and Negotiation

 

1) Project management people skills include:

  1. A) Team building.
  2. B) Scheduling.
  3. C) Budgeting.
  4. D) Project evaluation.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.0 Introduction

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

2) The first step in assembling a project team is to:

 

  1. A) Talk to potential team members.
  2. B) Identify the required skills.
  3. C) Negotiate with the functional supervisor.
  4. D) Notify top management.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

3) Which two steps of project team building are out of sequence?

  1. A) You always identify skills before you identify people.
  2. B) You always negotiate with the functional supervisor before you negotiate with top management.
  3. C) You always negotiate with the functional supervisor before you talk to potential team members.
  4. D) You always identify personnel before you talk to potential team members.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

4) A project manager can identify the skills needed for the project from the:

  1. A) Departmental personnel listings.
  2. B) Project budget.
  3. C) Stakeholder meeting.
  4. D) Work breakdown structure.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

5) Most project resources are negotiated with:

  1. A) Project managers.
  2. B) Potential team members.
  3. C) Top management.
  4. D) External stakeholders.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

6) Stacey noted that the client was a cantankerous old man and that her current project team lacked the requisite skills to work with him. Time was running short, so the BEST approach to making sure the project team had the necessary skills was to:

  1. A) Locate a new client for this project.
  2. B) Identify a suitable training program and implement it.
  3. C) Hire a contractor for the life of the project.
  4. D) Modify the skill set to something that her current team possessed.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

7) If a functional manager will NOT release the resources you need as project manager, your best course of action is to:

  1. A) Complete the project as best you can and inform management and the client that you predicted this outcome.
  2. B) Use social media to voice your concerns.
  3. C) Notify top management of the consequences.
  4. D) Update your resume.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

8) With a failure to secure personnel releases from functional managers, a project manager should:

  1. A) Proceed as originally planned.
  2. B) Abandon the project.
  3. C) Adjust schedules and scope documents.
  4. D) Relinquish project leader status.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

9) Team building and conflict management skills are two of the most important people skills that project managers can cultivate.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  6.0 Introduction

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Diverse and Multicultural Work Environments

 

10) The first step in assembling a project team is to talk to potential team members.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

11) If preferred project team members are not available, the project manager should notify top management of the consequences.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

12) What are the steps in assembling a project team? Which is most critical? Why?

Answer:  The first step in building a project team is to examine the work breakdown structure and identify the skills required to perform the assignments. The second step is to identify the personnel that have these skills and talk to them about the project. The project manager must then negotiate with the functional supervisor about the availability of the skilled personnel. If this is successful, the team can be assembled and the project moves into the next phase of role clarification and responsibility determination. If the desired people are not available, the project manager should renegotiate with top management and if successful, then assembles the team. If negotiations with top management are unsuccessful, then the project manager should turn to a fallback position. Answers will vary as to which step is most critical.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

13) You have been tapped as project manager for your dream project and find yourself initially rebuffed by functional managers that are reluctant to release members of your "dream team" to help you work on the project. What are three alternatives you might choose from and which is most attractive?

Answer:  The three alternatives that are available to a manager constitute fallback positions in the project life cycle. One alternative is to negotiate for partial assistance; if a full-time assignment is sought, perhaps the manager will relinquish the employee at one-quarter time. The advantage of this approach is that it secures an inroad into the employee's time that may be increased later. Another alternative is to adjust the project schedule and priorities accordingly. If the employee is not available full time, then it must be accepted that the project cannot proceed at the desired pace, or perhaps can be completed within the allotted time frame in some limited scope. The third alternative is to report the situation to top management and ask for their intervention or inform them of the dire consequences of this lack of skilled personnel.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.1 Building the Project Team

LO:  6.1: Understand the steps in project team building.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

14) A key determinant of project success is a:

  1. A) Rapidly assembled team.
  2. B) Slowly assembled team.
  3. C) Project leader voted on by the team.
  4. D) Clear project mission.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

15) The number one predictor of project success is:

  1. A) The absence of conflict among project team members.
  2. B) Documentation that clearly articulates the consequences of failing to achieve the objectives.
  3. C) A mission that is understood and accepted by all team members.
  4. D) A well-prepared fallback position in case the project cannot be executed as imagined.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

16) The BEST source of troubleshooting for problems is the:

  1. A) Project team.
  2. B) Project manager.
  3. C) Project customer.
  4. D) Project champion.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

17) Productive interdependencies hinge upon:

  1. A) The project manager's role as the hub of the team with all team members as spokes.
  2. B) The degree of knowledge the team members have and the importance they attach to interrelatedness of efforts.
  3. C) The cohesiveness of the project team's supply chain and the degree of assistance they render the project team.
  4. D) The support the key stakeholders offer to the overall project success.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

18) The study group that Philip had formed in his first MBA class had gotten him through his management science course; of that there could be no question. Now as he neared the end of his MBA he reflected on how team members had chosen courses together each semester, keeping the study group intact and keeping themselves one step ahead of their classmates. His MBA project team had:

  1. A) Trust coming out of their ears.
  2. B) Cohesiveness in spades.
  3. C) An overabundance of enthusiasm.
  4. D) A plethora of results orientation.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

19) Trust based on a person's competence would be summarized by this team member's affectionate statement towards another team member:

  1. A) "I trust you to honor your commitments."
  2. B) "Does it feel right to allow you to make this decision?"
  3. C) "I trust you to be able to accomplish this task."
  4. D) "I trust you to do the right thing."

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

20) The key to creating the energy and spirit that drives effective project efforts is:

  1. A) Results orientation.
  2. B) Trust.
  3. C) Cohesiveness.
  4. D) Enthusiasm.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

21) The semester project was due at 8:00 a.m. the next day and as the sun rose swiftly in the east, the team of four graduating seniors held their collective breath. If their database project worked (and why wouldn't it, they had begun early yesterday afternoon) they would complete their quest and graduate in a week with their shiny diplomas in MIS. Their drive to finish the project with A quality work was clear testament to their:

  1. A) Results orientation.
  2. B) Trust.
  3. C) Cohesiveness.
  4. D) Enthusiasm.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

22) Cletus thought they were draining the swamp, but Spike was convinced they were better off building a bridge across it. Their project team was doomed to failure owing to their:

  1. A) Poorly defined team roles.
  2. B) Unclear goals.
  3. C) Lack of motivation.
  4. D) Poorly defined team interdependencies.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

23) All of the members of the ladies' circle were horrified when each of them arrived at the parish hall with 20 gallons of potato salad. It was all quite delicious but wasn't the well-balanced spread they customarily set out. The potato salad disaster of '89 was passed from generation to generation along with a stern warning to:

  1. A) Make sure that every team member is motivated.
  2. B) Make sure that project goals are clear.
  3. C) Make sure that project team roles are clear.
  4. D) Make sure that turnover is low.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

24) Which of the following phenomena would be most likely to occur if the project team did NOT have clear and commonly understood project goals?

  1. A) The motivation level of team members would increase.
  2. B) Conflict among team members would increase.
  3. C) The level of trust among team members would increase.
  4. D) The interdependency among team members would increase.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

25) The department chair had allotted plenty of time for all department (and project) members to prepare sections of their five-year program review. Administration demanded no less than 50 pages be devoted to a thorough and thoughtful review of activities and goals. What happened to the report was anybody's guess; no one had actually seen one or ever heard back from administration once they had submitted it. Most of the project team members thought the report was immediately sent to the steam tunnels running underneath the campus or perhaps it would sit collecting dust as part of a make-work program to justify an assistant VP's job. No wonder that team meetings were poorly attended and that all the sections of the report were filled with trite phrases and wide margins. This team suffers from:

  1. A) Tenure.
  2. B) Poorly developed goals.
  3. C) Poorly defined team interdependencies.
  4. D) Lack of motivation.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

26) The Dean's laissez faire attitude hit its zenith when he had missed five department chair meetings in a row despite the pressing needs of the MBA Curriculum Revision Team. No one was sure what to do so they did nothing, and the MBA program remained as it had always been as the revision team slunk back to their offices. If only there had been:

  1. A) Better leadership, the project might have succeeded.
  2. B) Less turnover among project members, the project might have succeeded.
  3. C) A clear goal, the project might have succeeded.
  4. D) More motivation among team members, the project might have succeeded.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

27) The project team's office needed a revolving door to facilitate the influx and outflow of personnel. Team members needed name tags to keep track of who was who and what their duties were. The project was jeopardized by:

  1. A) Poor leadership.
  2. B) High turnover.
  3. C) Lack of team motivation.
  4. D) Poor communication among team members.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

28) Disruptive acts of some project team members due to personality issues, hidden agendas, or interpersonal problems are categorized as:

  1. A) Poor communication.
  2. B) Lack of motivation.
  3. C) Dysfunctional behavior.
  4. D) Poor leadership.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

29) Project managers are best able to promote a sense of enthusiasm within the project team when they create an environment that is challenging, supportive, and personally rewarding.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

30) High turnover among project team members is a key element of success since new team members will bring fresh perspectives and ideas to the group.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

31) What are the characteristics of effective project teams?

Answer:  Effective project teams have a clear sense of mission, a productive interdependency, cohesiveness, trust, enthusiasm, and results orientation. A clear sense of mission is perhaps the number one predictor of success. Project teams perform well when there is a clear sense of purpose or goal for the project. Interdependency refers to the degree of joint activity among project team members that is required in order to successfully complete a project. Each individual brings special skills to the table and each must be aware of how these skills fit into the overall scheme and what skills that others provide. Cohesiveness refers to the degree of mutual attraction that team members hold for each other and their task. For a project team, trust can best be understood as the team's comfort level with each individual member. Enthusiasm is the key to creating energy and spirit that drives effective project efforts. Finally, result orientation suggests that each member of the project team is committed to achieving the project's goals.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

32) You have assembled your project team, and as luck would have it, you added every person to your team that you wanted. Your team has a diverse set of skills, and each member has at least one skill that another doesn't have. This is why you chose each one; otherwise you couldn't hope to deliver the project. What is wrong with segmenting the team in terms of their specific duties?

Answer:  The text identifies three issues with assigning each member a small, discrete task but no sense of how that activity contributes to the overall project development effort. First, the project team is the manager's best source for troubleshooting problems, both potential and actual. If the team is kept in the dark, members who could potentially help with the smooth development of the project through participating in other aspects of the installation are not able to contribute in helpful ways. Second, team members know and resent it when they are being kept in the dark about various features of the project on which they are working. Finally, from a "firefighting" perspective, it simply makes good sense for team leaders to keep their people abreast of the status of the project. The more time spent defining goals and clarifying roles in the initial stages of the team's development, the less time will be needed to resolve problems and adjudicate disputes down the road.

Diff: 3

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

33) The author presents the need for a productive interdependency among project team members. What are the tradeoffs between differentiation and redundancy and how are these related to a productive interdependency?

Answer:  Interdependency refers to the degree of joint activity among team members that is required to complete the project. A team with a diverse skill set must have this interdependency if the project demands this array of abilities. The differentiation will be valuable; each team member brings an idea of their role and importance of their various contributions. If there is no overlap of skills, then underperformance or unavailability of any team member might jeopardize the project. If the team members were highly redundant, then project costs might be high (if their salary were charged to the project) and the duplication of team membership might actually be counterproductive.

Diff: 3

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

34) How can project managers promote a sense of enthusiasm within the project team?

Answer:  Project managers are best able to promote a sense of enthusiasm within the project team when they create an environment that is challenging, supportive, and personally rewarding. It is important that the environment is challenging so that each member of the project perceives his role to offer the opportunity for professional or personal growth, new learning, and the ability to stretch himself. A supportive environment allows project team members to gain a sense of team spirit and group identity that creates feelings of uniqueness with regard to the project. Finally, project team members become more enthusiastic as they perceive personal benefits from successful completion of the project.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.2 Characteristics of Effective Project Teams

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

35) What are the main three reasons why project teams fail?

Answer:  There are a number of reasons why teams operate at less than optimum performance. One of the most common causes of project team failure is due to the absence of clear and commonly understood project goals. Project teams also suffer if the team roles and interdependencies are poorly defined. A lack of motivation among team members also has a detrimental effect on project team performance. Poor communication comes about for a variety of reasons, but the net result is that project teams underperform if communication is poor. Lack of, or poor, leadership fails a team since the manager is often the lynchpin holding the team together. High turnover among project team members is disruptive as it prevents a manager from achieving team cohesion. Dysfunctional behavior refers to disruptive acts of some project team members; this behavior is also detrimental to team performance.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

36) What are three consequences of poorly designed or unclear goals?

Answer:  The most common problem with poorly developed goals is that they allow each team member to make separate and often differing interpretations of project objectives. As a result, rather than helping the team to focus on the project at hand, these goals actually serve to increase disagreements as each team member interprets the project's goals in different ways.

When team members are faced with ambiguous goals, it is common for each person to interpret the goals in the most advantageous way. When goals are used to support individuals rather than team objectives, it often leads to situations in which one person's desire to satisfy the project goals as he interprets them actually conflicts with another team member's desire to satisfy her goals.

Project team conflict is heightened by vague goals that allow for multiple, self-centered interpretations. Rather than working on completing the project, team members expend energy and time in conflict with one another sifting through project objectives.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.3 Reasons Why Teams Fail

LO:  6.2: Know the characteristics of effective project teams and why teams fail.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

37) Team members get to know each other in the:

  1. A) Adjourning stage of group development.
  2. B) Storming stage of group development.
  3. C) Performing stage of group development.
  4. D) Forming stage of group development.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

38) Conflict begins as team members begin to resist authority and demonstrate hidden agendas and prejudices in the:

  1. A) Storming stage of group development.
  2. B) Performing stage of group development.
  3. C) Forming stage of group development.
  4. D) Norming stage of group development.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

39) Everyone in the Tagi tribe agreed to vote out Gervasse at the next tribal council. Their 39-day project to make it to the final four together was two steps away from completion. This project group is in the:

  1. A) Storming stage of group development.
  2. B) Performing stage of group development.
  3. C) Forming stage of group development.
  4. D) Norming stage of group development.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

40) It appeared that everyone on the project team was finally on board; Jim would bring the doughnuts to all team meetings and Jenny would make the coffee. Fully caffeinated and on a sugar high, the team was coming together and fully committed to the project development process. The team was now planted firmly in the:

  1. A) Storming stage of group development.
  2. B) Forming stage of group development.
  3. C) Norming stage of group development.
  4. D) Performing stage of group development.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

41) "Our work here is done," the project leader shouted as he surveyed the scene. "Go home and reflect on what you've accomplished and I'll see you at the world premiere, once we're all immortalized in a feature length movie." This project team is in the:

  1. A) Forming stage of group development.
  2. B) Norming stage of group development.
  3. C) Performing stage of group development.
  4. D) Adjourning stage of group development.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

42) The role of the team leader is to create structure and set the tone for future cooperation and positive team attitudes in the:

  1. A) Forming stage of group development.
  2. B) Norming stage of group development.
  3. C) Performing stage of group development.
  4. D) Adjourning stage of group development.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

43) Gersick's model for team development rejects the standard model in favor of something called:

  1. A) Forming-storming-norming-performing-adjourning.
  2. B) Directed chaos.
  3. C) The golden rule.
  4. D) Punctuated equilibrium.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

44) The punctuated equilibrium model of team development says that:

  1. A) Cataclysmic events promote growth after long periods of no change.
  2. B) Change occurs as the team leader insists upon it.
  3. C) There can be no equilibrium until suffering has occurred.
  4. D) If team members are punctual, the project can achieve equilibrium.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

45) Project team productivity is at its peak during the norming phase of group development.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

46) The punctuated equilibrium model suggests that groups spend the majority of their time in stasis.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

47) What are the stages in group development and what project management behaviors are exhibited in each stage?

Answer:  The stages in group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. In the forming stage, the project team members get to know each other and lay the basis for project and team ground rules. The storming stage features the start of conflict as team members begin to resist authority and demonstrate hidden agendas and prejudices. Members agree on operating procedures and seek to work together in the norming stage, finally committing to the project development process. Group members work to accomplish the project during the performing stage. Once their work is done, groups disband in the adjourning stage.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

48) You have undoubtedly been in many student project groups, teams, or perhaps project groups at work. Write a brief description of a memorable group you have been a member of and describe your favorite phase in the group development process. What specific behaviors and incidents identify the phase in question?

Answer:  The stages in group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Examples will vary, but should include anecdotes along the lines of the classic behaviors describes in the following five sentences. In the forming stage, the project team members get to know each other and lay the basis for project and team ground rules. The storming stage features the start of conflict as team members begin to resist authority and demonstrate hidden agendas and prejudices. Members agree on operating procedures and seek to work together in the norming stage, finally committing to the project development process. Group members work to accomplish the project during the performing stage. Once their work is done, groups disband in the adjourning stage.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

49) Explain Gersick's model of punctuated equilibrium.

Answer:  Punctuated equilibrium proposes that rather than evolution occurring as a steady state of gradual change, real natural change comes about through long periods of stasis, interrupted by some cataclysmic event that propels upward, evolutionary adjustment. Gersick's work indicates that teams develop operating norms rather quickly and will operate under these norms until a trigger event, occurring halfway between the initial meeting and the project's due date, causes a change in norms and better task performance.

Diff: 3

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

50) Choose an example project from the current or very recent business literature. Sketch a graphical version of Gersick's model of punctuated equilibrium and label the curve and both axes.

Answer:  Punctuated equilibrium proposes that rather than evolution occurring as a steady state of gradual change, real natural change comes about through long periods of stasis, interrupted by some cataclysmic event that propels upward, evolutionary adjustment. Gersick's work indicates that teams develop operating norms rather quickly and will operate under these norms until a trigger event, occurring halfway between the initial meeting and the project's due date, causes a change in norms and better task performance. Examples will vary.

 

Diff: 3

Section:  6.4 Stages in Group Development

LO:  6.3: Know the stages in the development of groups.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

51) The two sets of factors that contribute to cross-functional cooperation influence:

  1. A) Criticality and accessibility.
  2. B) Functionality and outcomes.
  3. C) Cooperation and outcomes.
  4. D) Cooperation and criticality.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

52) What are psychosocial outcomes as contained in the cross-functional cooperation model?

  1. A) The emotional and psychological effects that strong performance will have on the project team
  2. B) The psychopathic behaviors exhibited by members of the project team in a social setting
  3. C) The psychomotor skills needed to complete many of the tasks by members of the project team
  4. D) The psychological profile of introversion/extroversion and intuitive/sensing that determine how team members interact with each other

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

53) An overall goal or purpose that is important to all functional groups involved, but whose attainment requires the resources and efforts of more than one group, is a(n):

  1. A) Superordinate goal.
  2. B) Means goal.
  3. C) End goal.
  4. D) Field goal.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

54) Cross-functional cooperation directly affects both:

  1. A) Superordinate goals and psychosocial outcomes.
  2. B) Psychosocial outcomes and task outcomes.
  3. C) Task outcomes and self-actualization.
  4. D) Self-actualization and superordinate goals.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

55) "Loose Cannon" Buchanan said and did whatever he wanted, which was usually at odds with the behavior of the rest of the business faculty. An appropriate mechanism for bringing him into alignment with the rest of the team is:

  1. A) Issuing superordinate goals.
  2. B) Creating a formalized set of rules.
  3. C) Making sure he was in close proximity to the rest of the faculty.
  4. D) Have the team adopt his aberrant behavioral patterns.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

56) The design team's location in one centralized cube farm made it convenient for them to interact with each other and overhear conversations that they had something to contribute to, proving once again the value of:

  1. A) Accessibility.
  2. B) Rules and procedures.
  3. C) Superordinate goals.
  4. D) Physical proximity.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

57) Even though he was the facilities director with the county, Keith loosened his tie and waded into the raw, untreated sewage with the rest of the project team. As they stood there together in the quagmire of mud and feces, the team members found Keith less intimidating and his:

  1. A) Accessibility was at an all-time high. Surely the cross-functional cooperation of the team would soon peak.
  2. B) Proximity was at an all-time high. Surely the cross-functional cooperation of the team would soon peak.
  3. C) Equanimity was at an all-time high. Surely the cross-functional cooperation of the team would soon peak.
  4. D) Task orientation was at an all-time high. Surely the cross-functional cooperation of the team would soon peak.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

58) Which of these terms is most likely associated with task outcomes?

  1. A) Satisfying endeavor
  2. B) Worthwhile experience
  3. C) Project schedule
  4. D) Productive use of time

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

59) Cross-functional cooperation directly influences both the actual implementation of the project and the team members' assessment that the project experience was worthwhile.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

60) In general, a superordinate goal is a replacement goal for the goals of all functional groups involved in the project.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

61) Accessibility is the perception of the project team members that they are physically located in such a way that it is easy for them to interact.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

62) Sketch the two-stage model of cross-functional cooperation and describe all of the elements.

Answer:  The two-stage cross-functional cooperation model is pictured below:

 

 

Superordinate goals are a purpose that is important to all functional groups involved, but whose attainment requires the resources and efforts of more than one group.

Rules and procedures are central to any discussion of cross-functional cooperation because they offer a means for coordinating or integrating activities that involve several functional units.

Physical proximity refers to project team members' perceptions that they are located within physical or spatial distances that make it convenient for them to interact with each other.

Accessibility is the perception by others that a person is approachable for communicating and interacting with on problems or concerns which are related to project success.

Task outcomes refer to the factors involved in the actual implementation of the project.

Psychosocial outcomes represent the team member's assessment that the project experience was worthwhile, satisfying, and productive.

Diff: 3

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

63) What are three practical steps that project managers can take so that teamwork can emerge?

Answer:  Based on previous research, there are three practical steps project managers can take to set the stage for teamwork to emerge. The project team manager should:

Make the project team as tangible as possible — Effective teams develop their own identity and the manager can foster this by publicizing the project and team members, promoting interaction, and emphasizing the importance of project outcomes.

Reward good behavior — Non-monetary rewards for good performance is crucial. The project manager should recognize that everyone views rewards differently, provide alternative means to get the message across, and recognize what can be rewarded.

Develop a personal touch — the manager should build one-on-one relationships with project team members.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.5 Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation

LO:  6.4: Describe how to achieve cross-functional cooperation in teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

64) Virtual teams are often slowed down by difficulty with:

  1. A) Superordinate goals.
  2. B) Task reliance.
  3. C) Punctuated equilibrium.
  4. D) Communication.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Information Technology

 

65) Virtual teams are often slowed down by difficulty establishing:

  1. A) Superordinate goals.
  2. B) Task outcomes.
  3. C) Trust.
  4. D) Psychosocial outcomes.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Information Technology

 

 

66) A splendid way to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of virtual teams is to:

  1. A) Have them meet face-to-face occasionally.
  2. B) Restrict team members to audio communication only.
  3. C) Mandate audio and video in all electronic communication.
  4. D) Use e-mail most of the time since the printed word is rarely misinterpreted.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Information Technology

67) Regular meetings and ad hoc get-togethers prevent a virtual team member from:

  1. A) Accomplishing too much.
  2. B) Disappearing.
  3. C) Forgetting deadlines.
  4. D) Missing meetings.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Information Technology

 

68) Everyone on the virtual project team agreed to respond to e-mail within 24 hours of receipt, and this:

  1. A) Conflict resolution process assured the project team of success.
  2. B) Augmented communication assured the project team of success.
  3. C) Code of conduct assured the project team of success.
  4. D) Heuristic assured the project team of success.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Information Technology

 

 

69) During the two hours before their 7:30 p.m. appointments on Wednesday evenings, the operations team had a weekly gripe session during which everyone gleefully unloaded on the powers that controlled their miserable lives. This session was valuable since it:

  1. A) Allowed them to feel like real men, if only for a little while.
  2. B) Rewarded good behavior.
  3. C) Established a sense of security and consistency.
  4. D) Created a clear process for addressing conflict and group norms.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Information Technology

 

70) The two main challenges that virtual project teams face are building trust and establishing the best modes of communication.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

71) What are virtual teams and what are two potential problems with using them? How can these problems be avoided?

Answer:  Virtual teams involve the use of electronic media, including e-mail, internet, and teleconferencing to link together members of a geographically dispersed project team. Virtual teams can have great difficulty building trust and establishing the best modes of communication. In order to combat these difficulties, project managers should try to augment virtual communication with face-to-face opportunities and try to establish a code of conduct among team members.

Diff: 1

Section:  6.6 Virtual Project Teams

LO:  6.5: See the advantages of virtual project teams.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Information Technology

 

 

72) Conflict is not a state, but a:

  1. A) Way of life.
  2. B) Condition.
  3. C) Process.
  4. D) Certainty.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

73) Because conflict is perceptual in nature:

  1. A) It is a state.
  2. B) It is essentially static.
  3. C) It often cannot be solved by any conventional means but must be refereed.
  4. D) It doesn't really matter if one party has truly wronged another party.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

74) Conflict associated with disagreement in project scope, priorities, or objectives is:

  1. A) Goal-oriented.
  2. B) Administrative.
  3. C) Interpersonal.
  4. D) Traditional.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

75) Your first project team meeting got off to a bad start when the functional manager for your team's physician refused to allow her to attend the meeting. This:

  1. A) Goal-oriented conflict threatened the project's success.
  2. B) Administrative conflict posed a serious threat to the project's success.
  3. C) Interpersonal conflict was devastating to the project's chance for success.
  4. D) Interactionist conflict meant there would be no project completion party in your future.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

76) Robert didn't mince words. If a person's ideas were ill-considered, he was likely to tell them that their ideas were bad. If there was a disagreement, he plainly stated that the person with the opposing viewpoint was wrong. To some, his manner was abrasive and un-collegial and this was a source of:

  1. A) Goal-oriented conflict.
  2. B) Administrative conflict.
  3. C) Interpersonal conflict.
  4. D) Interactionist conflict.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

77) The husband in the marriage project meekly apologized and hid in the garage while the other project team member rampaged through the house. The husband holds the:

  1. A) Behavioral view of conflict.
  2. B) Interactionist view of conflict.
  3. C) Traditional view of conflict.
  4. D) Attributional view of conflict.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept, Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

78) Some of the team members took great delight in stirring the pot at team meetings. They knew just how to get each team member agitated and then sat back and enjoyed the show. These troublemakers defended their actions by claiming that they took the:

  1. A) Traditional view of conflict.
  2. B) Behavioral view of conflict.
  3. C) High reliability view of conflict.
  4. D) Interactionist view of conflict.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

79) The Liberal Arts faculty failed to see the reason that every professor on campus would not make exactly the same amount of money, arguing that every person is of equal value. The business faculty relied on the laws of supply and demand and market forces to guide their wages and couldn't fathom why their counterparts could be such dunderheads. The source of conflict between these two groups is:

  1. A) Differentiation.
  2. B) Uncertainty.
  3. C) Reward systems.
  4. D) Structural.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

80) The globalization committee was halfway through their first meeting before the team leader realized that his boss had granted him authority that wasn't going to be agreed to by the functional managers of his team. After the meeting, his team members reported back to their units and the team leader's phone began to ring. The source of the conflict he is about to experience is:

  1. A) Differentiation.
  2. B) Uncertainty.
  3. C) Scarce resources.
  4. D) Reward systems.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

81) The misconception of the reason behind another person's behavior is:

  1. A) Faulty communication.
  2. B) A personal grudge.
  3. C) Faulty attribution.
  4. D) Prejudice.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

82) Andy Ambiguous concluded the project meeting and the puzzled team compared notes as they walked down the hall from the meeting room. Each team member had a different spin on what their assignment was before the next meeting and this was sure to create some problems, thanks to the:

  1. A) Prejudice.
  2. B) Faulty attribution.
  3. C) Personal grudges.
  4. D) Faulty communication.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

83) Two research studies conducted over a decade apart discovered that the major sources of conflict within project teams are:

  1. A) Schedules and project priorities.
  2. B) Personalities and cost.
  3. C) Human resources and technical opinions.
  4. D) Administrative procedures and budget.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

84) A manager engaged in conflict mediation may choose to:

  1. A) Evade.
  2. B) Defuse.
  3. C) Excuse.
  4. D) Peruse.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

85) When a project manager imposes a judgment on warring parties, he is involved in:

  1. A) Mediation.
  2. B) Elimination.
  3. C) Arbitration.
  4. D) Acceptance.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

86) Administrative conflict arises through management hierarchy, organizational structure, or company philosophy.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

87) The behavioral view of conflict is that conflict has a negative effect on organizations.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

88) What is conflict and what three forms does it take?

Answer:  Conflict is a process that begins when you perceive that someone has frustrated or is about to frustrate a major concern of yours. Goal-oriented conflict is associated with disagreements regarding end results, project scope outcomes, performance specifications and criteria, project priorities and objectives. Administrative conflict arises through management hierarchy, organizational structure, or company philosophy. These conflicts are centered on disagreements about reporting relationships and who has administrative control and authority for functions, project tasks, and decisions. Interpersonal conflict occurs with personality differences between project team members and important project stakeholders.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

89) What are the primary ways of resolving conflict? Which is most effective?

Answer:  Project managers must learn to develop flexibility in dealing with conflict, knowing when to intervene versus when to remain neutral. Conflict can be managed in terms of five alternatives:

Mediate the conflict — The manager can employ defusion or confrontation tactics to try and find a solution.

Arbitrate the conflict — The project manager may decide to impose a judgment on the parties and declare a winner.

Control the conflict — The parties can be allowed to cool down for a while or the combatants can be physically separated.

Accept the conflict — Not all conflicts are manageable so the project manager may decide the team can accept the conflict and still accomplish the mission.

Eliminate the conflict — In some situations, the conflict may be so disruptive that it threatens the project, so one team member must be eliminated by any means necessary.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.7 Conflict Management

LO:  6.6: Understand the nature of conflict and evaluate response methods.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

90) Principled negotiation is the art of:

  1. A) Getting agreement with the other party while maintaining a win-win attitude.
  2. B) Refusing to compromise your principles for the sake of a business deal.
  3. C) Creating conflict to test for an adversary's weakness and reducing conflict once the weakness has been exposed.
  4. D) Dividing your resources in the face of superior numbers.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

91) Which of these questions is important to consider as you enter a negotiation?

  1. A) What if I lose?
  2. B) How much power do I have?
  3. C) How much money do I have?
  4. D) Am I smarter than my opponent?

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

92) An excellent starting point in negotiations is to:

  1. A) Deduce their intentions from your fears.
  2. B) Identify the person that is the source of the problem.
  3. C) Deduce their fears from your intentions.
  4. D) Put yourself in their shoes.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

93) When negotiating, it is important to:

  1. A) Focus on interests, not positions.
  2. B) Focus on positions, not interests.
  3. C) Focus on positions and interests.
  4. D) Focus on neither interests nor positions.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

94) Managers involved in negotiation should:

  1. A) Search for the absolute best answer.
  2. B) Verify whether there is only a fixed set of alternatives.
  3. C) Realize that solving the other party's problem is actually the other party's problem.
  4. D) Exercise premature judgment.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

95) Once a negotiation process begins, during its earliest phase we should include the other party in a problem-solving session to identify alternative outcomes. This technique is called:

  1. A) Broadening options.
  2. B) Identifying shared interests.
  3. C) Inclusive brainstorming.
  4. D) Objective criteria.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

96) One of the BEST methods for ensuring that a negotiation proceeds along substantive lines is to frame the discussion around:

  1. A) Subjective criteria.
  2. B) Broadening options.
  3. C) Negative brainstorming.
  4. D) Objective criteria.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

97) When negotiating, it is important to remember that for every position, there are usually several alternatives that can satisfy it.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

98) One of the best methods for ensuring that a negotiation proceeds along substantive lines is to frame the discussion around objective criteria.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

99) What is negotiation? Why is it important in project management?

Answer:  Negotiation is a process that is predicated on a manager's ability to use his influence productively. Negotiation skills are important because much of a project manager's life is taken up in bargaining sessions of one type or another. From stakeholder management to arranging for project team members to have more time away from their regular duties, a project manager must be able to negotiate with a wide variety of parties from positions of power and little power.

Diff: 1

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

100) What are the main elements of principled negotiation?

Answer:  Principled negotiation is the art of getting agreement with the other party while maintaining a principled, win-win attitude. The main elements of principled negotiation are separating people from the problem, focusing on interests, not positions, inventing options for mutual gain, and insisting on using objective criteria.

Diff: 1

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

101) On the first day of class your professor distributed a syllabus that promised to base your course grade on a series of unannounced exams and a massive group project. As you scanned the room that day, you noted that many of your classmates did not share your enthusiasm for the subject and many were C students at best. You felt that your perfect 4.0 GPA was at stake if the professor's almost diabolical grading scheme were to be implemented. You decided right away that it was up to you to negotiate a grading scheme of equal parts class attendance, open book quizzes, and trivial homework assignments. How should you prepare for the negotiation and how should you proceed?

Answer:  The three beginning questions are how much power you have, what are the time pressures, and can the opponent be trusted. A student's power may be a function of the importance placed on end of term professor evaluations and the tenure status of the professor. The time pressure here is extreme — the syllabus would have to change early in the semester or the first exam might be distributed. Obviously, professors are the most trustworthy people in the world. The elements of principled negotiation might be referenced in the answer — the student negotiator should put himself in the professor's shoes, avoid deducing the professor's intentions from his fears, avoid blaming the professor for the class makeup, listen actively, build a working relationship, and recognize and understand emotions. As far as actual negotiating points are concerned, the student might point out that the material could be best learned using his proposed assessments than the professor's. The student might also point out that there would be far less burden on the professor using the attendance-quiz-assignment scheme than grading a massive project and several exams. These options for mutual gain might influence the grading scheme articulated in the original syllabus.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

102) What are three options to consider when searching for win-win alternatives in negotiation? How does each option work?

Answer:  The three options for mutual gain that are used in principled negotiation are positive and inclusive brainstorming, broadening options, and identifying shared interests. Positive and inclusive brainstorming implies that once a negotiation process begins, during its earliest phase we seek to include the other party in a problem-solving session to identify alternative outcomes. This demonstrates that we are not interested in beating the other side, but in solving the problem. The idea of broadening options is a direct offshoot of the notion of brainstorming. Broadening our options requires us to be open to alternative positions and can be a natural result of focusing on interests rather than positions. The third technique, identification of shared interests, requires putting aside larger issues to a later point in the discussion, after smaller issues that can be more readily agreed upon are discussed. Once the two parties begin to work together, the larger issues may be more easily resolved.

Diff: 2

Section:  6.8 Negotiation

LO:  6.7: Understand the importance of negotiation skills in project management.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

 

 

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