PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2016
Case study guides and online resources (2016)
Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto
Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4e (Pinto)
Chapter 9 Project Scheduling: Networks, Duration Estimation, and Critical Path
1) The term ordered activity means:
 A) Tasks must either precede or follow other tasks in project planning and management.
 B) Tasks cannot be performed unless the project manager issues a specific command to perform the work.
 C) Prior project planning removes the need for any rush so that tasks can be performed in a methodical fashion.
 D) Tasks are not performed unless the customer issues a specific request to perform the work.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.1 Project Scheduling
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
2) A sequence of activities defined by the project network logic is a(n):
 A) Event.
 B) Path.
 C) Node.
 D) Route.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
3) One of the defining points of a network, a junction point joined to some or all of the others by dependency lines, is called a(n):
 A) Event.
 B) Path.
 C) Node.
 D) Burst.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
4) These can be located by doing a backward pass through a network.
 A) Critical paths
 B) Merge activities
 C) Successors
 D) Burst activities
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
5) An activity has an expected duration and an expected cost. Another name for an activity is a(n):
 A) Work package.
 B) Node.
 C) Critical path.
 D) Event.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
6) Serial activities are those that:
 A) Flow from one to the next in sequence.
 B) Have sequential numbers.
 C) Have the same numbers.
 D) Should be performed simultaneously.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
7) Concurrent activities are:
 A) Activities that must be done one after the other.
 B) Activities that can be performed at the same time.
 C) Activities that use labor from the same group of workers.
 D) Activities that use resources from the same resource pool.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
8) Which of these statements about this network is BEST?
 A) Activities A and B are serial activities.
 B) Activities B and C are serial activities.
 C) Activities A and C are serial activities.
 D) Activity D is a merge activity.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
9) A backward pass is performed when it is necessary to undo some work that has been performed in order to complete it properly.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
10) Draw a network of any size that has at least one of each of the following features: merge activity, burst activity, hammock activity, ladder activity, critical path, serial activities, concurrent activities, and float. Mark these features on your network.
Answer: Answers will vary, but here's an example. Activity C is a merge because it has two predecessors and a burst activity because it has two successors. Activities A and B are concurrent activities and activities D and F are serial activities. Activities E and G have been laddered and activities H and I are represented by a hammock activity. The critical path consists of activities ACDFHIJ. Activities B, E, and G have float.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
11) What is the background of CPM and PERT? What are the differences between the two techniques?
Answer: PERT and CPM are the two primary methods for developing activity networks. PERT, which stands for Program Evaluation and Review Technique, was developed in the late 1950s in collaboration between the U.S. Navy, BoozAllen Hamilton, and Lockheed Corporation for the creation of the Polaris missile program. PERT originally was used in research and development (R&D), a field in which activity duration estimates can be difficult to make, and resulted from probability analysis. CPM, or Critical Path Method, was developed independently at the same time as PERT by DuPont, Inc. CPM, used commonly in the construction industry, differs from PERT primarily in the assumptions it makes about estimating activity durations. CPM assumes that durations are more deterministic; that is, they are easier to ascertain and can be assigned to activities with greater confidence. Further, CPM was designed to better link (and therefore control) project activity time and costs, particularly the time/cost tradeoffs that lead to crashing decisions (speeding up the project). In practice, however, over the years the differences between PERT and CPM have blurred to the point where it is now common to simply refer to these networking techniques as PERT/CPM.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
12) Network logic suggests that:
 A) Activity D can start any time.
 B) Activity A must be complete before Activity B can be done.
 C) Activities A, B and C must be complete before Activity D can be done.
 D) Activity C must begin before Activity B begins.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
13) Based on the activity network pictured, what is the BEST statement?
 A) Before starting Activity C, Activity A and Activity B must be completed.
 B) Before starting Activity D, Activity A and Activity B need to be completed.
 C) Before starting Activity E, Activity A and Activity B need to be completed.
 D) Before starting Activity C, Activity A and Activity D must be completed.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
14) Based on the activity network pictured, what is the BEST statement?
 A) Activity C is a burst activity.
 B) Activity E has one predecessor, Activity B.
 C) Activity A and Activity C are merge activities.
 D) There are no serial activities in this network.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
15) There's an old saying, "The job is not finished until the paperwork is done." From an activity network standpoint, this does not necessarily mean that the paperwork can't begin until the last nonpaperwork activity is completed. It might be possible to work on some paperwork as early activities are completed. In order to depict this in an activity network:
 A) Hammock activities could be drawn.
 B) Subroutines could be added.
 C) Shortcuts can be added to the network.
 D) Laddering could be used to redraw the network.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
16) The overall effect of laddering activities is to:
 A) Streamline the linkage and sequencing between activities and keep project resources fully employed.
 B) Summarize some subsets of the activities identified in the overall project network.
 C) Allow the project team to disaggregate the overall project network into logical summaries.
 D) Allow the project manager to more fully deploy resources and complete the project with zero slack.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
17) Summaries for some subsets of the activities identified in the overall project network are called:
 A) Ladder activities.
 B) Hammock activities.
 C) Negative float activities.
 D) Compressed activities.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
18) Hammock activities allow:
 A) Project managers to streamline the linkage and sequencing between activities.
 B) Project workers to effectively skip nonessential activities without compromising project quality.
 C) The project team to better disaggregate the overall project network into subsets.
 D) The project manager to identify float more quickly and leverage it more successfully for the overall success of the project.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
19) Activities C, D, and E in the project represented by the network are to be hammocked. What is the activity length of the hammock activity?
 A) 20
 B) 16
 C) 13
 D) 11
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
20) Activities C, D, and E in the project represented by the network are to be hammocked. What are the early start and late finish times of the hammock activity?
 A) 6, 20
 B) 6, 26
 C) 9, 20
 D) 9, 26
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
21) Preceding activities are those that must occur before others can be done.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.1 Project Scheduling
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
22) A merge activity has two or more immediate predecessors.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
23) Burst activities are those with two or more successor activities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
24) At a merge point in a forward pass, the largest preceding early finish becomes the early start for that node.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
25) At a burst point in a backward pass, the largest succeeding late start becomes the late finish for that node.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
26) What does a network diagram illustrate and why are they important in project management?
Answer: A network diagram is a schematic display of the project's work packages and the logical relationships and interdependencies among them. For this reason, the network diagram facilitates communication flows and helps with the master scheduling of organizational resources because it shows times when personnel must be fully committed to project activities. The network diagram also identifies the critical activities and distinguishes them from the less critical and when each must start and end in order to keep the project on schedule and complete it on time.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.1 Project Scheduling
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
27) Consider a project composed of activities X and Y having equal length and performed in that order. Both activities can be laddered such that the first half of each activity is the predecessor for its own second half, so X1 precedes X2 and Y1 precedes Y2. The first half of X1 is also the predecessor for Y1. If the laddering procedure were performed again activities X and Y would be divided in four parts each, with precedence working as it did in the first split. Derive an expression for the minimum length of the project as laddering increases.
Answer: The original length of the project is X+Y. When laddering is performed the first time, the project length becomes X1+Y1+Y2; this is because X2 can be performed concurrently with Y1. If the activities are divided again, the project length will be X1+Y1+Y2+Y3+Y4; because X2 can be performed concurrently with Y1, X3 can be performed concurrently with Y2, and X4 can be performed concurrently with Y3.
In general, the project can be viewed as the length of Y plus the waiting time while completing the length of subactivity X1. As the number of iterations of laddering these activities becomes large, the length of subactivity X1 becomes small, reducing project length to the length of activity Y.
Expressed mathematically where P is the project length:
Without laddering P = x + y
1st ladder P = + y
2nd ladder P = + y
Subsequent P = = y
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
28) What are hammock activities and when should they be used?
Answer: Hammock activities can be used as summaries for some subsets of the activities identified in the overall project network. The hammock is named so because it hangs below the network path for tasks it is summarizing and serves as an aggregation for the activities it rolls up. Hammocks allow the project team to better disaggregate the overall project network into logical summaries. The process is helpful when the project network is extremely complex or consists of a large number of individual activities. It is also useful when the project budget if actually shared among a number of cost centers or departments. Hammocking the activities that are assignable to each cost center makes the job of cost accounting for the project easier.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
29) Prior to creating a network, it is important to:
 A) Identify all loops through activities.
 B) Identify the party responsible for each activity.
 C) Calculate the float for each activity.
 D) Understand the activity precedence.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.3: Develop a network using ActivityonNode (AON) techniques.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
30) The length of time expected to complete an activity assuming that its development proceeds normally is called the:
 A) Optimistic duration.
 B) Pessimistic duration.
 C) Most likely duration.
 D) Normal duration.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
31) Ray's shipment of materials hit every red light and traffic jam on the way to the site. Upon arrival, half of the material was judged defective, necessitating a trip back to the supplier, and then the same arduous journey back to the site once the new materials were loaded. Traffic was a little better on the second round but the flat tire and subsequent repair caused as much if not more delay than the first trip. In the final analysis:
 A) The project activity of Material Delivery was pretty close to the optimistic estimate.
 B) The project activity of Material Delivery was pretty close to the most likely estimate.
 C) The project activity of Material Delivery had a much higher variance than anticipated.
 D) The project activity of Material Delivery was pretty close to the pessimistic estimate.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
32) The variance of an activity is given by:
 A) [1/6(ba)]2.
 B) 1/6[ba].
 C) [1/36(ba)]2.
 D) 1/36[ba].
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
33) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 25 days, a most likely estimate of 29 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 34 days. What is the expected duration of the activity?
 A) Less than 31 days but greater than or equal to 29 days
 B) Less than 29 days but greater than or equal to 27 days
 C) Less than 27 days but greater than or equal to 25 days
 D) Less than 25 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
34) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 17 days, a most likely estimate of 23 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 37 days. What is the variance of the activity?
 A) 3.33
 B) 6.66
 C) 9.99
 D) 11.11
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
35) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 17 days, a most likely estimate of 22 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 32 days. What is the expected duration of the activity?
 A) 22.83 days
 B) 23.67 days
 C) 24.33 days
 D) 25.17 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
36) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 12 days, a most likely estimate of 16 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 22 days. What is the expected standard deviation of the activity?
 A) Between 1 and 2 days
 B) Between 2 and 3 days
 C) Between 3 and 4 days
 D) Between 4 and 5 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
37) An activity has a pessimistic time that is four times as long as its most likely time and six times as long as its optimistic time. If the activity variance is 12, what is the expected time?
 A) About 8 days
 B) About 9 days
 C) About 10 days
 D) About 11 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
38) Activity Z has estimates a = 5, b = 12, m = 7; activity X has estimates a = 5, b = 11, m = 6; and activity Y has estimates a = 3, b = 11, m = 8. Which of the following statements is BEST?
 A) Activity X is longer than Activity Y.
 B) Activity X has a higher standard deviation than Activity Z.
 C) Activity Z is shorter than Activity Y.
 D) Activity Y has a smaller variance than Activity Z.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
39) Project Test Bank is composed of activities we will refer to as A, B, C, and D for convenience (and lack of creativity). Durations and precedence requirements are shown in the table. Each of these activities can be conveniently laddered into two subactivities of equal duration. The first half of each activity serves as the predecessor to its second half and the first half of the original following activity. What is the expected completion time of the laddered project?
Activity 
Length 
Predecessor 
A 
10 
 
B 
18 
A 
C 
14 
A 
D 
20 
B, C 
 A) 34
 B) 38
 C) 42
 D) 48
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
40) Project Test Bank is composed of activities we will refer to as A, B, C, and D for convenience (and lack of creativity). Durations and precedence requirements are shown in the table. Each of these activities can be conveniently laddered into two subactivities of equal duration. The first half of each activity serves as the predecessor to its second half and the first half of the original following activity. What is the expected completion time of the laddered project?
Activity 
Length 
Predecessor 
A 
10 
 
B 
18 
A 
C 
14 
A 
D 
20 
B, C 
 A) 34
 B) 38
 C) 42
 D) 48
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
41) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the expected completion time of the project?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 32 days
 B) 33 days
 C) 34 days
 D) 35 days
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
42) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the standard deviation of the project's critical path?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 1.33 days
 B) 1.56 days
 C) 1.25 days
 D) 1.75 days
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
43) You must know the mean of an activity in order to determine its standard deviation.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
44) In assigning a value for the most pessimistic (b) duration, the project manager should estimate the duration of the activity to have a 99% likelihood that it will take b or less amount of time.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
45) The late start time should be calculated using a forward pass through the network.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
46) Laddering is a technique that allows the project manager to redraw the network to more closely sequence project subtasks to make the overall network sequence more efficient.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
47) Hammock activities break a task into greater levels of detail so that each task is represented as two or more subtasks that each have their own duration and precedence requirements.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
48) What are three methods of duration estimation for project activities and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each method?
Answer: The text presents three alternative ways to estimate times, including past experience, expert opinion, and mathematical derivation. Past experience is easily leveraged but it assumes that the circumstances are the same and that what worked in the past will work tomorrow. Expert opinion calls upon past project managers or subject matter experts to get accurate information on activity estimates. Experts should have knowledge about how to perform an activity and how long it should take, but if they are not used to performing the work, their estimates may be too low. Mathematical derivation offers an objective alternative to activity estimation by calling for optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of each activity. The gain in objectivity may be offset by the pain of developing three time estimates for each activity instead of just one.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
49) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. Which path is critical? How closely should the other path be watched and why?
Activity 
Predecessor 
Optimistic 
Likely 
Pessimistic 
A 
 
4 
6 
10 
B 
A 
2 
5 
8 
C 
A 
6 
7 
9 
D 
B 
3 
9 
20 
E 
C 
7 
9 
11 
F 
D,E 
7 
11 
19 
Answer: The critical path is ACEF at 34.17 days and path ABDF has duration of 32.83 days. The path variances are ACEF=5.69 and ABDF=14.02, resulting in standard deviations of 2.39 and 3.75 days, respectively. The higher variability associated with the noncritical path is cause for concern; it will take a movement of only one standard deviation above the mean for the noncritical path to become critical.
Diff: 3
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
50) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. Which path is critical? How closely should the other path be watched and why?
Activity 
Predecessor 
Optimistic 
Likely 
Pessimistic 
A 
 
5 
7 
10 
B 
A 
4 
6 
9 
C 
A 
10 
13 
18 
D 
B 
8 
11 
15 
E 
C, D 
2 
3 
5 
Answer: The estimated activity lengths and variances appear in the table below.

Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Activity time 
Standard Deviation 
Variance 
A 
5 
7 
10 
7.17 
0.83 
0.69 
B 
4 
6 
9 
6.17 
0.83 
0.69 
C 
10 
13 
18 
13.33 
1.33 
1.78 
D 
8 
11 
15 
11.17 
1.17 
1.36 
E 
2 
3 
5 
3.17 
0.5 
0.25 
The critical path is ABDE at 27.67 days and path ACE has duration of 23.67 days. The path variances are ABDE=3 and ACE=2.72, resulting in standard deviations of 1.732 and 1.65 days, respectively. The critical path is more highly variable and the only activity that is noncritical, activity C, has a pessimistic time that if achieved, would make its path just slightly longer than the critical path if all of its activities hit their expected time.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
51) What is the underlying theory to the three time estimates approach? What data distribution should be applied in this case and what confidence should a project manager place in the calculations associated with this technique?
Answer: Probability suggests that the amount of time that an activity is likely to take is rarely deterministic; rather it is stochastic and found as the result of sampling a range of likelihoods of the event occurring. These likelihoods range from zero to one. In order to derive a reasonable estimate for the activity's duration, we identify the activity's most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic durations. From these time estimates we can use a symmetrical or asymmetrical probability distribution to develop a mean and standard deviation for each activity. A normal distribution might be used if the optimistic and pessimistic estimates are symmetrical to the mean and a beta distribution can be employed if the estimates are asymmetrical. The goal is to achieve a high level of confidence for the probability estimates; the higher the better in order to achieve a better estimate for the project duration.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
52) What is the earliest that Activity D can begin if Activity A takes 3 days, Activity B takes 5 days, and Activity C takes 7 days?
 A) Day 15
 B) Day 7
 C) Day 5
 D) Day 3
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
53) What is the early start time for Activity D given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
6 
A 
C 
4 
A 
D 
5 
B, C 
 A) 7
 B) 9
 C) 11
 D) 13
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
54) What is the late start time for Activity B given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
6 
A 
C 
4 
A 
D 
5 
B, C 
 A) 11
 B) 9
 C) 7
 D) 5
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
55) What is the late start time for Activity E given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 14
 B) 15
 C) 16
 D) 17
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
56) What is the late finish time for Activity D given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 14
 B) 13
 C) 12
 D) 11
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
57) What is the early start time for Activity G given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 22
 B) 21
 C) 20
 D) 19
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
58) What is the early finish time for Activity F given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 15
 B) 17
 C) 19
 D) 21
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
59) Use the information in the table to determine the late start time for Activity E.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 23
 B) Day 26
 C) Day 32
 D) Day 17
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
60) Use the information in the table to determine the early start time for Activity B.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 10
 B) Day 8
 C) Day 9
 D) Day 11
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
61) Use the information in the table to determine the early finish time for Activity D.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 23
 B) Day 26
 C) Day 29
 D) Day 32
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
62) Use the information in the table to determine the late finish time for Activity B.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 17
 B) Day 20
 C) Day 23
 D) Day 26
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
63) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the early start time for activity D.
 A) 8
 B) 13
 C) 14
 D) 21
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
64) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the late start time for activity F.
 A) 21
 B) 24
 C) 26
 D) 23
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
65) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the early finish time for activity G.
 A) 26
 B) 25
 C) 24
 D) 23
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
66) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the late finish time for activity C.
 A) 12
 B) 13
 C) 14
 D) 15
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
67) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the early start time for activity D.
 A) 8
 B) 13
 C) 14
 D) 21
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
68) Project Test Bank is composed of activities we will refer to as A, B, C, and D for convenience (and lack of creativity). Durations and precedence requirements are shown in the table. Each of these activities can be conveniently laddered into two subactivities of equal duration, so activity C in the original project becomes two activities, C1 and C2, each of which lasts 7 days. The first half of each activity serves as the predecessor to its second half and the first half of the original following activity. What is the difference in the late start time for activity C in the original project and activity C1 in the laddered project?
Activity 
Length 
Predecessor 
A 
10 
 
B 
18 
A 
C 
14 
A 
D 
20 
B, C 
 A) 3
 B) 5
 C) 7
 D) 9
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
69) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the late finish for the Plant Posts activity?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 13.3 days
 B) 8 days
 C) 20.83 days
 D) 22 days
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
70) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides that activities B, C, and D can be represented by a hammock activity. What are the early start and late finish times associated with this hammock activity?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
B 
D 
8 
C 
E 
7 
A 
F 
6 
E 
G 
6 
A 
H 
11 
G 
I 
12 
H 
J 
14 
D, F, I 
 A) 11, 30
 B) 7, 24
 C) 11, 24
 D) 7, 36
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
71) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides that activities H and I can be represented by a hammock activity. What are the early start and late finish times associated with this hammock activity?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
B 
D 
8 
C 
E 
7 
A 
F 
6 
E 
G 
6 
A 
H 
11 
G 
I 
12 
H 
J 
14 
D, F, I 
 A) 13, 36
 B) 13, 24
 C) 24, 36
 D) 7, 36
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
72) Construct a network using the information in the table and identify the critical path.
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
4 

B 
6 
A 
C 
9 
A 
D 
11 
B 
E 
16 
B, C 
F 
4 
D 
G 
8 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
Answer: The network appears below; critical path is ACEGH. Early and late start and finish times are in the table below the network.
Task 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
0 
4 
0 
4 
B 
4 
10 
7 
13 
C 
4 
13 
4 
13 
D 
10 
21 
14 
25 
E 
13 
29 
13 
29 
F 
21 
25 
25 
29 
G 
29 
37 
29 
37 
H 
37 
44 
37 
44 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
73) Compute early and late start and finish times for the network shown.
Answer: Early and late start and finish times are given in the table.
Task 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
0 
6 
0 
6 
B 
6 
11 
16 
21 
C 
18 
27 
21 
30 
D 
6 
10 
14 
18 
E 
18 
30 
18 
30 
F 
6 
18 
6 
18 
G 
30 
38 
30 
38 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
74) Use the information in the table to sketch the network and compute early and late start times.
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
8 

B 
4 
A 
C 
5 
B, F 
D 
12 
A 
E 
8 
D 
F 
4 
D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
12 
G 
I 
6 
C, G 
J 
5 
I 
K 
9 
H 
L 
12 
J, K 
Answer: The early and late start times are shown in the table and the network is below:
Task 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
0 
8 
0 
8 
B 
8 
12 
38 
42 
C 
24 
29 
42 
47 
D 
8 
20 
8 
20 
E 
20 
28 
20 
28 
F 
20 
24 
24 
28 
G 
28 
37 
28 
37 
H 
37 
49 
37 
49 
I 
37 
43 
47 
53 
J 
43 
48 
53 
58 
K 
49 
58 
49 
58 
L 
58 
70 
58 
70 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
75) Use the information in the table to sketch the network and compute early and late start times.
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
8 

B 
4 
A 
C 
5 
B, F 
D 
12 
A 
E 
8 
D 
F 
4 
D 
G 
9 
E, F 
Answer: The early and late start times are shown in the table and the network is below:
Activity 
Activity time 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
Slack 
A 
5 
0 
5 
0 
5 
0 
B 
7 
5 
12 
21 
28 
16 
C 
8 
5 
13 
5 
13 
0 
D 
4 
12 
16 
28 
32 
16 
E 
11 
13 
24 
13 
24 
0 
F 
8 
24 
32 
24 
32 
0 
G 
14 
32 
46 
32 
46 
0 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
76) Phoebe B. Beebee is constructing a canal for the annual canoe races and has identified eleven activities that are required to complete this important project. She calculated early and late start times and early and late finish times but spilled coffee all over her printout. Use the remaining information to reconstruct the table for Phoebe B. Beebee and her new canoe canal.
Activity 
Predecessor 
Length 
Early Start 
Late Start 
Early Finish 
Late Finish 
A 
 



12 

B 
A 
20 




C 
A 





D 
B, E 


42 


E 
C 

28 


42 
F 
E 

42 

50 

G 
D 

53 
53 


H 
G 

70 



I 
G 


72 


J 
F 
4 




K 
H, I, J 


81 

91 
Answer: The completed table appears below:
Task 
Predecessor 
Length 
Early Start 
Late Start 
Early Finish 
Late Finish 
A 
 
12 
0 
0 
12 
12 
B 
A 
20 
12 
22 
32 
42 
C 
A 
16 
12 
12 
28 
28 
D 
B, E 
11 
42 
42 
53 
53 
E 
C 
14 
28 
28 
42 
42 
F 
E 
8 
42 
69 
50 
77 
G 
D 
17 
53 
53 
70 
70 
H 
G 
11 
70 
72 
81 
81 
I 
G 
9 
70 
72 
79 
81 
J 
F 
4 
50 
77 
54 
81 
K 
H, I, J 
10 
81 
81 
91 
91 
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
77) The amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the finish of the project is the:
 A) Delay.
 B) Float.
 C) Late start.
 D) Late finish.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
78) The least amount of float is found:
 A) In a resourcelimited schedule.
 B) After a burst activity.
 C) On the critical path.
 D) After a merge activity.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
79) What is the slack time for Activity B given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 10
 B) 9
 C) 8
 D) 7
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
80) What is the slack time for Activity D given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 2
 B) 1
 C) 0
 D) 3
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
81) What is the float start time for Activity C given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
A 
C 
5 
A 
D 
7 
B, C 
 A) 1
 B) 2
 C) 3
 D) 4
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
82) Use the information in the table to determine the slack time for Activity B.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) 6 days
 B) 4 days
 C) 2 days
 D) 0 days
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
83) What is the slack time for activity E?
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) 0 days
 B) 1 day
 C) 2 days
 D) 4 days
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
84) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the slack time for activity D.
 A) 3
 B) 2
 C) 1
 D) 0
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
85) Float is always measured in exactly the same way as slack.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
86) Negative float exists when a project's critical path has been completed more quickly than anticipated.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
87) Activity float is the difference between the late finish and early finish for the activity in question.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
88) An MBA student laboriously calculated the early and late start times and early and late finish times for all of the activities contained in this simple six activity project. Unfortunately, some of the information was washed away by lachrymal fluid. Kindly restore the table to its former glory by filling in the missing information.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
Answer:
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 
0 
8 
0 
8 
B 
A 
12 
8 
20 
14 
26 
C 
A 
15 
8 
23 
8 
23 
D 
C, B 
6 
23 
29 
26 
32 
E 
C 
9 
23 
32 
23 
32 
F 
D, E 
6 
32 
38 
32 
38 
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
89) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the probability that the project is completed in 31 days?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 0.055
 B) 0.092
 C) 0.125
 D) 0.187
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
90) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the probability that the project takes more than 34 days?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 0.788
 B) 0.212
 C) 0.945
 D) 0.055
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
91) The PERT technique assumes that durations are more deterministic.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
92) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. What is the likelihood of finishing this project within 47 days?
Activity 
Predecessor 
Optimistic 
Likely 
Pessimistic 
A 
 
5 
8 
11 
B 
A 
15 
20 
25 
C 
A 
7 
9 
12 
D 
A 
12 
16 
20 
E 
B, D 
8 
11 
15 
F 
C 
13 
17 
22 
G 
CE, F 
8 
9 
10 
Answer: The estimated activity lengths and variances appear in the table below.
Activity 
Activity time 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
Slack 
Standard Deviation 
A 
8 
0 
8 
0 
8 
0 
1 
B 
20 
8 
28 
8 
28 
0 
1.67 
C 
9.17 
8 
17.17 
12.83 
22 
4.83 
0.83 
D 
16 
8 
24 
12 
28 
4 
1.33 
E 
11.17 
28 
39.17 
28 
39.17 
0 
1.17 
F 
17.17 
17.17 
34.33 
22 
39.17 
4.83 
1.5 
G 
9 
39.17 
48.17 
39.17 
48.17 
0 
0.33 
Project 
48.17 





2.29 
Using only the critical path values of 48.17 for the mean and 2.29 for the standard deviation, the likelihood of finishing with 47 days is 0.304.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
93) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. What is the likelihood that the project takes between 60 and 55 days to complete?
Activity 
Activity time 
Standard deviation 
Predecessor 
A 
12 
3 

B 
8 
2 
A 
C 
9 
1 
A 
D 
5 
1 
B 
E 
12 
0 
B 
F 
10 
0 
C 
G 
7 
2 
C 
H 
9 
3 
E, G 
I 
15 
2 
D, G 
J 
8 
2 
H 
K 
11 
3 
I 
L 
7 
2 
J, K 
Answer: The critical path is ACGIKL and has an expected duration of 61 days with a standard deviation of 5.57 days. The likelihood of finishing within 55 days is 0.1406 and the likelihood of finishing within 60 days is 0.4287. The difference between the two is 0.2881.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
94) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. What is the project deadline such that there is a 75% chance it is completed on time?
Activity 
Activity time 
Standard deviation 
Predecessor 
A 
12 
3 

B 
8 
2 
A 
C 
9 
1 
A 
D 
5 
1 
B 
E 
12 
0 
B 
F 
10 
0 
C 
G 
7 
2 
C 
H 
9 
3 
E, G 
I 
15 
2 
D, G 
J 
8 
2 
H 
K 
11 
3 
I 
L 
7 
2 
J, K 
Answer: The critical path is ACGIKL and has an expected duration of 61 days with a standard deviation of 5.57 days. A 75% likelihood of completion is achieved at 0.67448975 standard deviations above the mean. Multiplying this value times the standard deviation of 5.57 days results in a value 3.75 days above the mean, which would be a goal of 64.7549 days.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
95) Activities C, D, and E in the project represented by the network are to be hammocked. What are the late start and early finish times of the hammock activity?
 A) 6, 24
 B) 6, 26
 C) 8, 24
 D) 8, 26
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
96) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides to represent a few activities by a hammock activity. Which is a legitimate hammock activity for this project?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
A 
D 
8 
A 
E 
7 
B 
F 
6 
C 
G 
6 
D 
H 
11 
E 
I 
12 
G 
J 
14 
H, F, I 
 A) Combine activities A, B, C
 B) Combine activities B, E, H
 C) Combine activities E, F
 D) Combine activities G, H, I
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
97) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides that activities E and F can be represented by a hammock activity. What are the duration and the early start time associated with this hammock activity?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
B 
D 
8 
C 
E 
7 
A 
F 
6 
E 
G 
6 
A 
H 
11 
G 
I 
12 
H 
J 
14 
D, F, I 
 A) 13, 36
 B) 7, 0
 C) 13, 7
 D) 7, 14
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
98) One approach to reducing project length would be to:
 A) Convert parallel paths to be serial.
 B) Convert merge activities to burst activities.
 C) Use hammock activities in place of multiple activities.
 D) Eliminate tasks on the critical path.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
99) A project's duration can be reduced by:
 A) Shortening the duration of critical path tasks.
 B) Adding tasks to the critical path.
 C) Adding shorter routes around the critical path.
 D) Completing the backward pass first.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
100) The BEST candidate activities for shortening the overall project are:
 A) The shortest tasks.
 B) The longest tasks.
 C) The merge tasks.
 D) The burst tasks.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
101) Which technique would accelerate the completion of a project?
 A) Hammocking
 B) Bursting
 C) Laddering
 D) Passing
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
102) In order to reduce the length of a project, it would be wise to shorten:
 A) The project activity that costs the least to speed up.
 B) The project activity that can be speeded up by the greatest amount.
 C) The critical path activity that can be speeded up by the greatest amount.
 D) The critical path activity that costs the least to speed up.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
103) In general, the better candidates for shortening are:
 A) Early tasks opposed to later tasks.
 B) Later tasks opposed to early tasks.
 C) Merge tasks opposed to burst tasks.
 D) Burst tasks opposed to merge tasks.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
104) What is laddering and what advantages can be gained from its use in project management?
Answer: Laddering is a technique that allows us to redraw the activity network to more closely sequence the project subtasks to make the overall network sequence more efficient. Complicated activities are broken down into smaller activities by virtue of identifying milestones within them. If a successor activity can begin after the attainment of one of these milestones, then project resources can be more fully employed, project duration can be reduced and the linkage and sequencing between activities can be streamlined.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
105) Discuss any five approaches to reducing the critical path. Which is the most effective and which is the most difficult to achieve? Why?
Answer: The text presents eight ways to reduce the critical path; answers will vary as to the most effective and most difficult to achieve depending on circumstances and students' intellectual capital. The alternatives presented are:
Eliminate tasks on the critical path — tasks can be dropped or moved to noncritical paths, thereby shortening the critical path.
Replan serial paths to be in parallel — if serial activities are converted to concurrent activities, project length can be reduced.
Overlap sequential tasks — laddering is a good method for overlapping sequential activities.
Shorten the duration on critical path tasks — if these tasks were improperly estimated, then the project length can be reduced.
Shorten early tasks — the logic here is that these tasks are more certain, being in the near future and such certainty can be taken advantage of by time reduction.
Shorten longest tasks — the longest tasks may have the same percentage padding and, as a result, the greatest amount of time that can be cut.
Shorten easiest tasks — duration estimates for the easiest tasks can be deflated without an adverse impact on the project team's work.
Shorten tasks that cost the least to speed up — crashing critical path activities by throwing money at them should be performed with a budget and conscience.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4e (Pinto)
Chapter 9 Project Scheduling: Networks, Duration Estimation, and Critical Path
1) The term ordered activity means:
 A) Tasks must either precede or follow other tasks in project planning and management.
 B) Tasks cannot be performed unless the project manager issues a specific command to perform the work.
 C) Prior project planning removes the need for any rush so that tasks can be performed in a methodical fashion.
 D) Tasks are not performed unless the customer issues a specific request to perform the work.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.1 Project Scheduling
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
2) A sequence of activities defined by the project network logic is a(n):
 A) Event.
 B) Path.
 C) Node.
 D) Route.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
3) One of the defining points of a network, a junction point joined to some or all of the others by dependency lines, is called a(n):
 A) Event.
 B) Path.
 C) Node.
 D) Burst.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
4) These can be located by doing a backward pass through a network.
 A) Critical paths
 B) Merge activities
 C) Successors
 D) Burst activities
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
5) An activity has an expected duration and an expected cost. Another name for an activity is a(n):
 A) Work package.
 B) Node.
 C) Critical path.
 D) Event.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
6) Serial activities are those that:
 A) Flow from one to the next in sequence.
 B) Have sequential numbers.
 C) Have the same numbers.
 D) Should be performed simultaneously.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
7) Concurrent activities are:
 A) Activities that must be done one after the other.
 B) Activities that can be performed at the same time.
 C) Activities that use labor from the same group of workers.
 D) Activities that use resources from the same resource pool.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
8) Which of these statements about this network is BEST?
 A) Activities A and B are serial activities.
 B) Activities B and C are serial activities.
 C) Activities A and C are serial activities.
 D) Activity D is a merge activity.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
9) A backward pass is performed when it is necessary to undo some work that has been performed in order to complete it properly.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
10) Draw a network of any size that has at least one of each of the following features: merge activity, burst activity, hammock activity, ladder activity, critical path, serial activities, concurrent activities, and float. Mark these features on your network.
Answer: Answers will vary, but here's an example. Activity C is a merge because it has two predecessors and a burst activity because it has two successors. Activities A and B are concurrent activities and activities D and F are serial activities. Activities E and G have been laddered and activities H and I are represented by a hammock activity. The critical path consists of activities ACDFHIJ. Activities B, E, and G have float.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
11) What is the background of CPM and PERT? What are the differences between the two techniques?
Answer: PERT and CPM are the two primary methods for developing activity networks. PERT, which stands for Program Evaluation and Review Technique, was developed in the late 1950s in collaboration between the U.S. Navy, BoozAllen Hamilton, and Lockheed Corporation for the creation of the Polaris missile program. PERT originally was used in research and development (R&D), a field in which activity duration estimates can be difficult to make, and resulted from probability analysis. CPM, or Critical Path Method, was developed independently at the same time as PERT by DuPont, Inc. CPM, used commonly in the construction industry, differs from PERT primarily in the assumptions it makes about estimating activity durations. CPM assumes that durations are more deterministic; that is, they are easier to ascertain and can be assigned to activities with greater confidence. Further, CPM was designed to better link (and therefore control) project activity time and costs, particularly the time/cost tradeoffs that lead to crashing decisions (speeding up the project). In practice, however, over the years the differences between PERT and CPM have blurred to the point where it is now common to simply refer to these networking techniques as PERT/CPM.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.1: Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
12) Network logic suggests that:
 A) Activity D can start any time.
 B) Activity A must be complete before Activity B can be done.
 C) Activities A, B and C must be complete before Activity D can be done.
 D) Activity C must begin before Activity B begins.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
13) Based on the activity network pictured, what is the BEST statement?
 A) Before starting Activity C, Activity A and Activity B must be completed.
 B) Before starting Activity D, Activity A and Activity B need to be completed.
 C) Before starting Activity E, Activity A and Activity B need to be completed.
 D) Before starting Activity C, Activity A and Activity D must be completed.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
14) Based on the activity network pictured, what is the BEST statement?
 A) Activity C is a burst activity.
 B) Activity E has one predecessor, Activity B.
 C) Activity A and Activity C are merge activities.
 D) There are no serial activities in this network.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
15) There's an old saying, "The job is not finished until the paperwork is done." From an activity network standpoint, this does not necessarily mean that the paperwork can't begin until the last nonpaperwork activity is completed. It might be possible to work on some paperwork as early activities are completed. In order to depict this in an activity network:
 A) Hammock activities could be drawn.
 B) Subroutines could be added.
 C) Shortcuts can be added to the network.
 D) Laddering could be used to redraw the network.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
16) The overall effect of laddering activities is to:
 A) Streamline the linkage and sequencing between activities and keep project resources fully employed.
 B) Summarize some subsets of the activities identified in the overall project network.
 C) Allow the project team to disaggregate the overall project network into logical summaries.
 D) Allow the project manager to more fully deploy resources and complete the project with zero slack.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
17) Summaries for some subsets of the activities identified in the overall project network are called:
 A) Ladder activities.
 B) Hammock activities.
 C) Negative float activities.
 D) Compressed activities.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
18) Hammock activities allow:
 A) Project managers to streamline the linkage and sequencing between activities.
 B) Project workers to effectively skip nonessential activities without compromising project quality.
 C) The project team to better disaggregate the overall project network into subsets.
 D) The project manager to identify float more quickly and leverage it more successfully for the overall success of the project.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
19) Activities C, D, and E in the project represented by the network are to be hammocked. What is the activity length of the hammock activity?
 A) 20
 B) 16
 C) 13
 D) 11
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
20) Activities C, D, and E in the project represented by the network are to be hammocked. What are the early start and late finish times of the hammock activity?
 A) 6, 20
 B) 6, 26
 C) 9, 20
 D) 9, 26
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
21) Preceding activities are those that must occur before others can be done.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.1 Project Scheduling
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
22) A merge activity has two or more immediate predecessors.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
23) Burst activities are those with two or more successor activities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
24) At a merge point in a forward pass, the largest preceding early finish becomes the early start for that node.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
25) At a burst point in a backward pass, the largest succeeding late start becomes the late finish for that node.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
26) What does a network diagram illustrate and why are they important in project management?
Answer: A network diagram is a schematic display of the project's work packages and the logical relationships and interdependencies among them. For this reason, the network diagram facilitates communication flows and helps with the master scheduling of organizational resources because it shows times when personnel must be fully committed to project activities. The network diagram also identifies the critical activities and distinguishes them from the less critical and when each must start and end in order to keep the project on schedule and complete it on time.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.1 Project Scheduling
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
27) Consider a project composed of activities X and Y having equal length and performed in that order. Both activities can be laddered such that the first half of each activity is the predecessor for its own second half, so X1 precedes X2 and Y1 precedes Y2. The first half of X1 is also the predecessor for Y1. If the laddering procedure were performed again activities X and Y would be divided in four parts each, with precedence working as it did in the first split. Derive an expression for the minimum length of the project as laddering increases.
Answer: The original length of the project is X+Y. When laddering is performed the first time, the project length becomes X1+Y1+Y2; this is because X2 can be performed concurrently with Y1. If the activities are divided again, the project length will be X1+Y1+Y2+Y3+Y4; because X2 can be performed concurrently with Y1, X3 can be performed concurrently with Y2, and X4 can be performed concurrently with Y3.
In general, the project can be viewed as the length of Y plus the waiting time while completing the length of subactivity X1. As the number of iterations of laddering these activities becomes large, the length of subactivity X1 becomes small, reducing project length to the length of activity Y.
Expressed mathematically where P is the project length:
Without laddering P = x + y
1st ladder P = + y
2nd ladder P = + y
Subsequent P = = y
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
28) What are hammock activities and when should they be used?
Answer: Hammock activities can be used as summaries for some subsets of the activities identified in the overall project network. The hammock is named so because it hangs below the network path for tasks it is summarizing and serves as an aggregation for the activities it rolls up. Hammocks allow the project team to better disaggregate the overall project network into logical summaries. The process is helpful when the project network is extremely complex or consists of a large number of individual activities. It is also useful when the project budget if actually shared among a number of cost centers or departments. Hammocking the activities that are assignable to each cost center makes the job of cost accounting for the project easier.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.2: Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
29) Prior to creating a network, it is important to:
 A) Identify all loops through activities.
 B) Identify the party responsible for each activity.
 C) Calculate the float for each activity.
 D) Understand the activity precedence.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.3: Develop a network using ActivityonNode (AON) techniques.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
30) The length of time expected to complete an activity assuming that its development proceeds normally is called the:
 A) Optimistic duration.
 B) Pessimistic duration.
 C) Most likely duration.
 D) Normal duration.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
31) Ray's shipment of materials hit every red light and traffic jam on the way to the site. Upon arrival, half of the material was judged defective, necessitating a trip back to the supplier, and then the same arduous journey back to the site once the new materials were loaded. Traffic was a little better on the second round but the flat tire and subsequent repair caused as much if not more delay than the first trip. In the final analysis:
 A) The project activity of Material Delivery was pretty close to the optimistic estimate.
 B) The project activity of Material Delivery was pretty close to the most likely estimate.
 C) The project activity of Material Delivery had a much higher variance than anticipated.
 D) The project activity of Material Delivery was pretty close to the pessimistic estimate.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
32) The variance of an activity is given by:
 A) [1/6(ba)]2.
 B) 1/6[ba].
 C) [1/36(ba)]2.
 D) 1/36[ba].
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
33) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 25 days, a most likely estimate of 29 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 34 days. What is the expected duration of the activity?
 A) Less than 31 days but greater than or equal to 29 days
 B) Less than 29 days but greater than or equal to 27 days
 C) Less than 27 days but greater than or equal to 25 days
 D) Less than 25 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
34) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 17 days, a most likely estimate of 23 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 37 days. What is the variance of the activity?
 A) 3.33
 B) 6.66
 C) 9.99
 D) 11.11
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
35) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 17 days, a most likely estimate of 22 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 32 days. What is the expected duration of the activity?
 A) 22.83 days
 B) 23.67 days
 C) 24.33 days
 D) 25.17 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
36) An activity has an optimistic time estimate of 12 days, a most likely estimate of 16 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 22 days. What is the expected standard deviation of the activity?
 A) Between 1 and 2 days
 B) Between 2 and 3 days
 C) Between 3 and 4 days
 D) Between 4 and 5 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
37) An activity has a pessimistic time that is four times as long as its most likely time and six times as long as its optimistic time. If the activity variance is 12, what is the expected time?
 A) About 8 days
 B) About 9 days
 C) About 10 days
 D) About 11 days
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
38) Activity Z has estimates a = 5, b = 12, m = 7; activity X has estimates a = 5, b = 11, m = 6; and activity Y has estimates a = 3, b = 11, m = 8. Which of the following statements is BEST?
 A) Activity X is longer than Activity Y.
 B) Activity X has a higher standard deviation than Activity Z.
 C) Activity Z is shorter than Activity Y.
 D) Activity Y has a smaller variance than Activity Z.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
39) Project Test Bank is composed of activities we will refer to as A, B, C, and D for convenience (and lack of creativity). Durations and precedence requirements are shown in the table. Each of these activities can be conveniently laddered into two subactivities of equal duration. The first half of each activity serves as the predecessor to its second half and the first half of the original following activity. What is the expected completion time of the laddered project?
Activity 
Length 
Predecessor 
A 
10 
 
B 
18 
A 
C 
14 
A 
D 
20 
B, C 
 A) 34
 B) 38
 C) 42
 D) 48
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
40) Project Test Bank is composed of activities we will refer to as A, B, C, and D for convenience (and lack of creativity). Durations and precedence requirements are shown in the table. Each of these activities can be conveniently laddered into two subactivities of equal duration. The first half of each activity serves as the predecessor to its second half and the first half of the original following activity. What is the expected completion time of the laddered project?
Activity 
Length 
Predecessor 
A 
10 
 
B 
18 
A 
C 
14 
A 
D 
20 
B, C 
 A) 34
 B) 38
 C) 42
 D) 48
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
41) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the expected completion time of the project?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 32 days
 B) 33 days
 C) 34 days
 D) 35 days
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
42) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the standard deviation of the project's critical path?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 1.33 days
 B) 1.56 days
 C) 1.25 days
 D) 1.75 days
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
43) You must know the mean of an activity in order to determine its standard deviation.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
44) In assigning a value for the most pessimistic (b) duration, the project manager should estimate the duration of the activity to have a 99% likelihood that it will take b or less amount of time.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
45) The late start time should be calculated using a forward pass through the network.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
46) Laddering is a technique that allows the project manager to redraw the network to more closely sequence project subtasks to make the overall network sequence more efficient.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
47) Hammock activities break a task into greater levels of detail so that each task is represented as two or more subtasks that each have their own duration and precedence requirements.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
48) What are three methods of duration estimation for project activities and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each method?
Answer: The text presents three alternative ways to estimate times, including past experience, expert opinion, and mathematical derivation. Past experience is easily leveraged but it assumes that the circumstances are the same and that what worked in the past will work tomorrow. Expert opinion calls upon past project managers or subject matter experts to get accurate information on activity estimates. Experts should have knowledge about how to perform an activity and how long it should take, but if they are not used to performing the work, their estimates may be too low. Mathematical derivation offers an objective alternative to activity estimation by calling for optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of each activity. The gain in objectivity may be offset by the pain of developing three time estimates for each activity instead of just one.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
49) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. Which path is critical? How closely should the other path be watched and why?
Activity 
Predecessor 
Optimistic 
Likely 
Pessimistic 
A 
 
4 
6 
10 
B 
A 
2 
5 
8 
C 
A 
6 
7 
9 
D 
B 
3 
9 
20 
E 
C 
7 
9 
11 
F 
D,E 
7 
11 
19 
Answer: The critical path is ACEF at 34.17 days and path ABDF has duration of 32.83 days. The path variances are ACEF=5.69 and ABDF=14.02, resulting in standard deviations of 2.39 and 3.75 days, respectively. The higher variability associated with the noncritical path is cause for concern; it will take a movement of only one standard deviation above the mean for the noncritical path to become critical.
Diff: 3
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
50) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. Which path is critical? How closely should the other path be watched and why?
Activity 
Predecessor 
Optimistic 
Likely 
Pessimistic 
A 
 
5 
7 
10 
B 
A 
4 
6 
9 
C 
A 
10 
13 
18 
D 
B 
8 
11 
15 
E 
C, D 
2 
3 
5 
Answer: The estimated activity lengths and variances appear in the table below.

Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Activity time 
Standard Deviation 
Variance 
A 
5 
7 
10 
7.17 
0.83 
0.69 
B 
4 
6 
9 
6.17 
0.83 
0.69 
C 
10 
13 
18 
13.33 
1.33 
1.78 
D 
8 
11 
15 
11.17 
1.17 
1.36 
E 
2 
3 
5 
3.17 
0.5 
0.25 
The critical path is ABDE at 27.67 days and path ACE has duration of 23.67 days. The path variances are ABDE=3 and ACE=2.72, resulting in standard deviations of 1.732 and 1.65 days, respectively. The critical path is more highly variable and the only activity that is noncritical, activity C, has a pessimistic time that if achieved, would make its path just slightly longer than the critical path if all of its activities hit their expected time.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
51) What is the underlying theory to the three time estimates approach? What data distribution should be applied in this case and what confidence should a project manager place in the calculations associated with this technique?
Answer: Probability suggests that the amount of time that an activity is likely to take is rarely deterministic; rather it is stochastic and found as the result of sampling a range of likelihoods of the event occurring. These likelihoods range from zero to one. In order to derive a reasonable estimate for the activity's duration, we identify the activity's most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic durations. From these time estimates we can use a symmetrical or asymmetrical probability distribution to develop a mean and standard deviation for each activity. A normal distribution might be used if the optimistic and pessimistic estimates are symmetrical to the mean and a beta distribution can be employed if the estimates are asymmetrical. The goal is to achieve a high level of confidence for the probability estimates; the higher the better in order to achieve a better estimate for the project duration.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.4: Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
52) What is the earliest that Activity D can begin if Activity A takes 3 days, Activity B takes 5 days, and Activity C takes 7 days?
 A) Day 15
 B) Day 7
 C) Day 5
 D) Day 3
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
53) What is the early start time for Activity D given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
6 
A 
C 
4 
A 
D 
5 
B, C 
 A) 7
 B) 9
 C) 11
 D) 13
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
54) What is the late start time for Activity B given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
6 
A 
C 
4 
A 
D 
5 
B, C 
 A) 11
 B) 9
 C) 7
 D) 5
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
55) What is the late start time for Activity E given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 14
 B) 15
 C) 16
 D) 17
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
56) What is the late finish time for Activity D given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 14
 B) 13
 C) 12
 D) 11
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
57) What is the early start time for Activity G given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 22
 B) 21
 C) 20
 D) 19
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
58) What is the early finish time for Activity F given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 15
 B) 17
 C) 19
 D) 21
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
59) Use the information in the table to determine the late start time for Activity E.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 23
 B) Day 26
 C) Day 32
 D) Day 17
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
60) Use the information in the table to determine the early start time for Activity B.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 10
 B) Day 8
 C) Day 9
 D) Day 11
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
61) Use the information in the table to determine the early finish time for Activity D.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 23
 B) Day 26
 C) Day 29
 D) Day 32
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
62) Use the information in the table to determine the late finish time for Activity B.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) Day 17
 B) Day 20
 C) Day 23
 D) Day 26
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
63) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the early start time for activity D.
 A) 8
 B) 13
 C) 14
 D) 21
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
64) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the late start time for activity F.
 A) 21
 B) 24
 C) 26
 D) 23
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
65) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the early finish time for activity G.
 A) 26
 B) 25
 C) 24
 D) 23
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
66) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the late finish time for activity C.
 A) 12
 B) 13
 C) 14
 D) 15
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
67) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the early start time for activity D.
 A) 8
 B) 13
 C) 14
 D) 21
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
68) Project Test Bank is composed of activities we will refer to as A, B, C, and D for convenience (and lack of creativity). Durations and precedence requirements are shown in the table. Each of these activities can be conveniently laddered into two subactivities of equal duration, so activity C in the original project becomes two activities, C1 and C2, each of which lasts 7 days. The first half of each activity serves as the predecessor to its second half and the first half of the original following activity. What is the difference in the late start time for activity C in the original project and activity C1 in the laddered project?
Activity 
Length 
Predecessor 
A 
10 
 
B 
18 
A 
C 
14 
A 
D 
20 
B, C 
 A) 3
 B) 5
 C) 7
 D) 9
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
69) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the late finish for the Plant Posts activity?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 13.3 days
 B) 8 days
 C) 20.83 days
 D) 22 days
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
70) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides that activities B, C, and D can be represented by a hammock activity. What are the early start and late finish times associated with this hammock activity?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
B 
D 
8 
C 
E 
7 
A 
F 
6 
E 
G 
6 
A 
H 
11 
G 
I 
12 
H 
J 
14 
D, F, I 
 A) 11, 30
 B) 7, 24
 C) 11, 24
 D) 7, 36
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
71) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides that activities H and I can be represented by a hammock activity. What are the early start and late finish times associated with this hammock activity?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
B 
D 
8 
C 
E 
7 
A 
F 
6 
E 
G 
6 
A 
H 
11 
G 
I 
12 
H 
J 
14 
D, F, I 
 A) 13, 36
 B) 13, 24
 C) 24, 36
 D) 7, 36
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
72) Construct a network using the information in the table and identify the critical path.
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
4 

B 
6 
A 
C 
9 
A 
D 
11 
B 
E 
16 
B, C 
F 
4 
D 
G 
8 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
Answer: The network appears below; critical path is ACEGH. Early and late start and finish times are in the table below the network.
Task 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
0 
4 
0 
4 
B 
4 
10 
7 
13 
C 
4 
13 
4 
13 
D 
10 
21 
14 
25 
E 
13 
29 
13 
29 
F 
21 
25 
25 
29 
G 
29 
37 
29 
37 
H 
37 
44 
37 
44 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
73) Compute early and late start and finish times for the network shown.
Answer: Early and late start and finish times are given in the table.
Task 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
0 
6 
0 
6 
B 
6 
11 
16 
21 
C 
18 
27 
21 
30 
D 
6 
10 
14 
18 
E 
18 
30 
18 
30 
F 
6 
18 
6 
18 
G 
30 
38 
30 
38 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
74) Use the information in the table to sketch the network and compute early and late start times.
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
8 

B 
4 
A 
C 
5 
B, F 
D 
12 
A 
E 
8 
D 
F 
4 
D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
12 
G 
I 
6 
C, G 
J 
5 
I 
K 
9 
H 
L 
12 
J, K 
Answer: The early and late start times are shown in the table and the network is below:
Task 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
0 
8 
0 
8 
B 
8 
12 
38 
42 
C 
24 
29 
42 
47 
D 
8 
20 
8 
20 
E 
20 
28 
20 
28 
F 
20 
24 
24 
28 
G 
28 
37 
28 
37 
H 
37 
49 
37 
49 
I 
37 
43 
47 
53 
J 
43 
48 
53 
58 
K 
49 
58 
49 
58 
L 
58 
70 
58 
70 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
75) Use the information in the table to sketch the network and compute early and late start times.
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
8 

B 
4 
A 
C 
5 
B, F 
D 
12 
A 
E 
8 
D 
F 
4 
D 
G 
9 
E, F 
Answer: The early and late start times are shown in the table and the network is below:
Activity 
Activity time 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
Slack 
A 
5 
0 
5 
0 
5 
0 
B 
7 
5 
12 
21 
28 
16 
C 
8 
5 
13 
5 
13 
0 
D 
4 
12 
16 
28 
32 
16 
E 
11 
13 
24 
13 
24 
0 
F 
8 
24 
32 
24 
32 
0 
G 
14 
32 
46 
32 
46 
0 
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
76) Phoebe B. Beebee is constructing a canal for the annual canoe races and has identified eleven activities that are required to complete this important project. She calculated early and late start times and early and late finish times but spilled coffee all over her printout. Use the remaining information to reconstruct the table for Phoebe B. Beebee and her new canoe canal.
Activity 
Predecessor 
Length 
Early Start 
Late Start 
Early Finish 
Late Finish 
A 
 



12 

B 
A 
20 




C 
A 





D 
B, E 


42 


E 
C 

28 


42 
F 
E 

42 

50 

G 
D 

53 
53 


H 
G 

70 



I 
G 


72 


J 
F 
4 




K 
H, I, J 


81 

91 
Answer: The completed table appears below:
Task 
Predecessor 
Length 
Early Start 
Late Start 
Early Finish 
Late Finish 
A 
 
12 
0 
0 
12 
12 
B 
A 
20 
12 
22 
32 
42 
C 
A 
16 
12 
12 
28 
28 
D 
B, E 
11 
42 
42 
53 
53 
E 
C 
14 
28 
28 
42 
42 
F 
E 
8 
42 
69 
50 
77 
G 
D 
17 
53 
53 
70 
70 
H 
G 
11 
70 
72 
81 
81 
I 
G 
9 
70 
72 
79 
81 
J 
F 
4 
50 
77 
54 
81 
K 
H, I, J 
10 
81 
81 
91 
91 
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.5: Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
77) The amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the finish of the project is the:
 A) Delay.
 B) Float.
 C) Late start.
 D) Late finish.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
78) The least amount of float is found:
 A) In a resourcelimited schedule.
 B) After a burst activity.
 C) On the critical path.
 D) After a merge activity.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
79) What is the slack time for Activity B given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 10
 B) 9
 C) 8
 D) 7
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
80) What is the slack time for Activity D given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
 
C 
8 
A 
D 
7 
A 
E 
4 
B 
F 
8 
C, D 
G 
9 
E, F 
H 
7 
G 
 A) 2
 B) 1
 C) 0
 D) 3
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
81) What is the float start time for Activity C given the activity times and precedence requirements shown in the table?
Activity 
Time 
Predecessor 
A 
5 
 
B 
7 
A 
C 
5 
A 
D 
7 
B, C 
 A) 1
 B) 2
 C) 3
 D) 4
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
82) Use the information in the table to determine the slack time for Activity B.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) 6 days
 B) 4 days
 C) 2 days
 D) 0 days
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
83) What is the slack time for activity E?
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
 A) 0 days
 B) 1 day
 C) 2 days
 D) 4 days
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
84) Use the network diagram and activity lengths in the nodes to determine the slack time for activity D.
 A) 3
 B) 2
 C) 1
 D) 0
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
85) Float is always measured in exactly the same way as slack.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.2 Key Scheduling Terminology
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
86) Negative float exists when a project's critical path has been completed more quickly than anticipated.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.4 Duration Estimation
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
87) Activity float is the difference between the late finish and early finish for the activity in question.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
88) An MBA student laboriously calculated the early and late start times and early and late finish times for all of the activities contained in this simple six activity project. Unfortunately, some of the information was washed away by lachrymal fluid. Kindly restore the table to its former glory by filling in the missing information.
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 




B 
A 



14 

C 
A 


23 
8 

D 
C, B 
6 
23 

26 

E 
C 


32 


F 
D, E 

32 


38 
Answer:
Task 
Predecessor 
Duration 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
A 
 
8 
0 
8 
0 
8 
B 
A 
12 
8 
20 
14 
26 
C 
A 
15 
8 
23 
8 
23 
D 
C, B 
6 
23 
29 
26 
32 
E 
C 
9 
23 
32 
23 
32 
F 
D, E 
6 
32 
38 
32 
38 
Diff: 3
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.6: Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
89) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the probability that the project is completed in 31 days?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 0.055
 B) 0.092
 C) 0.125
 D) 0.187
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
90) A gentleman farmer maniacally works on academic projects to raise funds for his true passion, farming. He has identified seven tasks and developed three time estimates (all in days) of the next big project on the farm, replacing the fence at the comedy pasture. Tasks, precedence requirements, and time estimates are shown in the table. What is the probability that the project takes more than 34 days?
Activity 
Optimistic time 
Most Likely time 
Pessimistic time 
Predecessor 
Corner Posts 
4 
5 
6 
 
String Line 
7 
8 
9 
 
Dig Holes 
10 
12 
14 
Corner Posts 
Plant Posts 
11 
14 
17 
String Line 
Weld Top Bar 
8 
11 
14 
String Line 
Paint 
9 
11 
13 
Dig Holes, Plant Posts 
Tack Wire 
9 
12 
16 
Weld Top Bar 
 A) 0.788
 B) 0.212
 C) 0.945
 D) 0.055
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
91) The PERT technique assumes that durations are more deterministic.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Section: 9.3 Developing a Network
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
92) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. What is the likelihood of finishing this project within 47 days?
Activity 
Predecessor 
Optimistic 
Likely 
Pessimistic 
A 
 
5 
8 
11 
B 
A 
15 
20 
25 
C 
A 
7 
9 
12 
D 
A 
12 
16 
20 
E 
B, D 
8 
11 
15 
F 
C 
13 
17 
22 
G 
CE, F 
8 
9 
10 
Answer: The estimated activity lengths and variances appear in the table below.
Activity 
Activity time 
Early Start 
Early Finish 
Late Start 
Late Finish 
Slack 
Standard Deviation 
A 
8 
0 
8 
0 
8 
0 
1 
B 
20 
8 
28 
8 
28 
0 
1.67 
C 
9.17 
8 
17.17 
12.83 
22 
4.83 
0.83 
D 
16 
8 
24 
12 
28 
4 
1.33 
E 
11.17 
28 
39.17 
28 
39.17 
0 
1.17 
F 
17.17 
17.17 
34.33 
22 
39.17 
4.83 
1.5 
G 
9 
39.17 
48.17 
39.17 
48.17 
0 
0.33 
Project 
48.17 





2.29 
Using only the critical path values of 48.17 for the mean and 2.29 for the standard deviation, the likelihood of finishing with 47 days is 0.304.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
93) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. What is the likelihood that the project takes between 60 and 55 days to complete?
Activity 
Activity time 
Standard deviation 
Predecessor 
A 
12 
3 

B 
8 
2 
A 
C 
9 
1 
A 
D 
5 
1 
B 
E 
12 
0 
B 
F 
10 
0 
C 
G 
7 
2 
C 
H 
9 
3 
E, G 
I 
15 
2 
D, G 
J 
8 
2 
H 
K 
11 
3 
I 
L 
7 
2 
J, K 
Answer: The critical path is ACGIKL and has an expected duration of 61 days with a standard deviation of 5.57 days. The likelihood of finishing within 55 days is 0.1406 and the likelihood of finishing within 60 days is 0.4287. The difference between the two is 0.2881.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
94) Use the values in the table to calculate activity durations and variances for the project. What is the project deadline such that there is a 75% chance it is completed on time?
Activity 
Activity time 
Standard deviation 
Predecessor 
A 
12 
3 

B 
8 
2 
A 
C 
9 
1 
A 
D 
5 
1 
B 
E 
12 
0 
B 
F 
10 
0 
C 
G 
7 
2 
C 
H 
9 
3 
E, G 
I 
15 
2 
D, G 
J 
8 
2 
H 
K 
11 
3 
I 
L 
7 
2 
J, K 
Answer: The critical path is ACGIKL and has an expected duration of 61 days with a standard deviation of 5.57 days. A 75% likelihood of completion is achieved at 0.67448975 standard deviations above the mean. Multiplying this value times the standard deviation of 5.57 days results in a value 3.75 days above the mean, which would be a goal of 64.7549 days.
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.7: Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
95) Activities C, D, and E in the project represented by the network are to be hammocked. What are the late start and early finish times of the hammock activity?
 A) 6, 24
 B) 6, 26
 C) 8, 24
 D) 8, 26
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
96) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides to represent a few activities by a hammock activity. Which is a legitimate hammock activity for this project?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
A 
D 
8 
A 
E 
7 
B 
F 
6 
C 
G 
6 
D 
H 
11 
E 
I 
12 
G 
J 
14 
H, F, I 
 A) Combine activities A, B, C
 B) Combine activities B, E, H
 C) Combine activities E, F
 D) Combine activities G, H, I
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
97) A project has the precedence requirements and activity durations shown in the table. After he draws the network, the project manager decides that activities E and F can be represented by a hammock activity. What are the duration and the early start time associated with this hammock activity?

Time 
Predecessor 
A 
7 

B 
8 
A 
C 
13 
B 
D 
8 
C 
E 
7 
A 
F 
6 
E 
G 
6 
A 
H 
11 
G 
I 
12 
H 
J 
14 
D, F, I 
 A) 13, 36
 B) 7, 0
 C) 13, 7
 D) 7, 14
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
98) One approach to reducing project length would be to:
 A) Convert parallel paths to be serial.
 B) Convert merge activities to burst activities.
 C) Use hammock activities in place of multiple activities.
 D) Eliminate tasks on the critical path.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
99) A project's duration can be reduced by:
 A) Shortening the duration of critical path tasks.
 B) Adding tasks to the critical path.
 C) Adding shorter routes around the critical path.
 D) Completing the backward pass first.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
100) The BEST candidate activities for shortening the overall project are:
 A) The shortest tasks.
 B) The longest tasks.
 C) The merge tasks.
 D) The burst tasks.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
101) Which technique would accelerate the completion of a project?
 A) Hammocking
 B) Bursting
 C) Laddering
 D) Passing
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
102) In order to reduce the length of a project, it would be wise to shorten:
 A) The project activity that costs the least to speed up.
 B) The project activity that can be speeded up by the greatest amount.
 C) The critical path activity that can be speeded up by the greatest amount.
 D) The critical path activity that costs the least to speed up.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
103) In general, the better candidates for shortening are:
 A) Early tasks opposed to later tasks.
 B) Later tasks opposed to early tasks.
 C) Merge tasks opposed to burst tasks.
 D) Burst tasks opposed to merge tasks.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
104) What is laddering and what advantages can be gained from its use in project management?
Answer: Laddering is a technique that allows us to redraw the activity network to more closely sequence the project subtasks to make the overall network sequence more efficient. Complicated activities are broken down into smaller activities by virtue of identifying milestones within them. If a successor activity can begin after the attainment of one of these milestones, then project resources can be more fully employed, project duration can be reduced and the linkage and sequencing between activities can be streamlined.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Concept
AACSB: Application of Knowledge
105) Discuss any five approaches to reducing the critical path. Which is the most effective and which is the most difficult to achieve? Why?
Answer: The text presents eight ways to reduce the critical path; answers will vary as to the most effective and most difficult to achieve depending on circumstances and students' intellectual capital. The alternatives presented are:
Eliminate tasks on the critical path — tasks can be dropped or moved to noncritical paths, thereby shortening the critical path.
Replan serial paths to be in parallel — if serial activities are converted to concurrent activities, project length can be reduced.
Overlap sequential tasks — laddering is a good method for overlapping sequential activities.
Shorten the duration on critical path tasks — if these tasks were improperly estimated, then the project length can be reduced.
Shorten early tasks — the logic here is that these tasks are more certain, being in the near future and such certainty can be taken advantage of by time reduction.
Shorten longest tasks — the longest tasks may have the same percentage padding and, as a result, the greatest amount of time that can be cut.
Shorten easiest tasks — duration estimates for the easiest tasks can be deflated without an adverse impact on the project team's work.
Shorten tasks that cost the least to speed up — crashing critical path activities by throwing money at them should be performed with a budget and conscience.
Diff: 1
Section: 9.5 Constructing the Critical Path
LO: 9.8: Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path.
Classification: Application
AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Free Online PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Learning marterial and resources for courses in:
1. See full list of videos: LINK
2. Free Marketing  2016 Ebooks (free download)
Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto  LINK DOWNLOAD
Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 3rd Edition, 2013, Jeffrey K. Pinto  LINK DOWNLOAD
MS Project 2010  Step by Step guides  link download
MS Project 2010  In Depth  link download
Microsoft Project 2010  Missing Manual  link download
Using Microsoft Project 2010  link download
Using Microsoft Project 2010 in 16 minutes  link download

Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics, 3rd Edition, 2017, Avraham Shtub, Moshe Rosenwein
Your Office: Getting Started with Project Management Using Microsoft Project 2016, 2017, Amy S. Kinser, Kristyn A. Jacobson
Project Management Analytics: A DataDriven Approach to Making Rational and Effective Project Decisions, 2016, Harjit Singh
Agile Project Management with Kanban, 2015, Eric Brechner
Project Management for Construction, 2015, David L. Goetsch, OskaloosaWalton
Project Management for Engineering and Technology, 2015, David L. Goetsch, OskaloosaWalton
Mastering Project Time Management, Cost Control, and Quality Management, 2015, Randal Wilson