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Project Management 2016 - Pinto - Quiz - Chapter 10

MBA Project Management

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2016

Case study guides and online resources (2016)

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto

 

 

 

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4e (Pinto)

Chapter 10   Project Scheduling: Lagging, Crashing, and Activity Networks

 

1) The most common type of logical sequencing between tasks is referred to as the:

  1. A) Finish to start relationship.
  2. B) Finish to finish relationship.
  3. C) Start to start relationship.
  4. D) Start to finish relationship.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

2) A finish to start lag delay is usually shown:

  1. A) As an added value in the predecessor's activity time.
  2. B) On the line adjoining the two activity nodes.
  3. C) As an added value in the predecessors early start time.
  4. D) As a subtracted value in the follower's early finish time.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

3) Activities A and B have a finish to finish relationship and early start and finish times as shown. What is the result of incorporating a 4-day lag between activities C and B?

 

  1. A) The early finish for A increases to 31.
  2. B) The early start time for A increases to 24.
  3. C) The early finish time for B increases to 31.
  4. D) The early start time for D falls to 23.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

4) What is the early start time for activity C if it has the start to start relationship shown?

 

  1. A) Day 20
  2. B) Day 25
  3. C) Day 27
  4. D) Day 29

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

5) Activity X has the start to finish relationship shown with activity Y and both have early start and finish times as shown. Which statement is BEST?

 

  1. A) a < d
  2. B) a < c
  3. C) b < c
  4. D) d < a

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

6) Finish to start lags are the same as additional activity slack.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

7) The least common type of lag relationship occurs when a successor's finish is dependent upon a predecessor's start.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

8) Sketch a network and use it as an example as you discuss the four different logical relationships between activities.

Answer:  The four types of logical relationships between tasks are 1) finish to start, 2) finish to finish, 3) start to start, and 4) start to finish. The most common type of logical sequencing between tasks is referred to as the finish to start relationship. A finish to start relationship is shown by Activity A and Activity B can begin. Finish to finish relationships require that two linked activities share a similar completion point. A finish to finish relationship is exhibited by the relationship between Activity C and Activity B. Often, two or more activities can start simultaneously or a lag takes place between the start of one activity after an earlier activity has commenced. Activity E and Activity D have a start to start network relationship. Perhaps the least common type of lag relationship occurs when a successor's finish is dependent upon a predecessor's start. Activity D and Activity F have such a relationship.

 

Diff: 2

Section:  10.1 Lags in Precedence Relationships

LO:  10.1: Apply lag relationships to project activities.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

9) Which statement about this Gantt chart is BEST?

 

  1. A) Activity a has a duration that could be as short as 1 day and as long as 10.
  2. B) Activity b probably has activity a as a predecessor.
  3. C) No progress has been made on activity c.
  4. D) Activity d is the longest activity.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

10) Consider the Gantt chart shown below where the time scale is in minutes and all activities are performed on an early start basis. How much slack is available in The Great Hair Washing project?

 

  1. A) 10 minutes
  2. B) 15 minutes
  3. C) 0 minutes
  4. D) 5 minutes

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

11) Use the Gantt chart and the activity list to determine when resource 5 is free.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

A

1

F

1

B

5

G

2

C

4

H

5

D

3

J

3

E

2

K

4

  1. A) Between 0 and 15
  2. B) Between 15 and 30
  3. C) Between 30 and 45
  4. D) Between 45 and 60

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

12) Use the Gantt chart and the activity list to determine when resource 2 is free.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

A

1

F

1

B

5

G

2

C

4

H

5

D

3

J

3

E

2

K

2

  1. A) Between 0 and 15
  2. B) Between 15 and 30
  3. C) Between 30 and 45
  4. D) Between 45 and 60

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

13) Use the Gantt chart and the activity list to determine which resource is used the least.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

A

1

F

2

B

1

G

3

C

4

H

4

D

2

J

3

E

2

K

5

  1. A) Resource 1
  2. B) Resource 3
  3. C) Resource 4
  4. D) Resource 2

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

14) Use the Gantt chart and the activity list to determine which resource is used the most.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

A

1

F

2

B

3

G

3

C

4

H

4

D

2

J

5

E

2

K

1

  1. A) Resource 4
  2. B) Resource 3
  3. C) Resource 1
  4. D) Resource 2

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

15) Use the Gantt chart and the activity list to determine which resource is free for use in another project before the others.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

A

1

F

2

B

3

G

3

C

4

H

4

D

2

J

5

E

2

K

1

  1. A) Resource 4
  2. B) Resource 3
  3. C) Resource 1
  4. D) Resource 2

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

16) Use the Gantt chart and the activity list to determine which resource is needed earliest in this project.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

A

5

F

2

B

6

G

3

C

7

H

4

D

1

J

5

E

2

K

1

  1. A) Resource 2
  2. B) Resource 3
  3. C) Resource 1
  4. D) Resource 4

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

17) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine when resource 3 is free.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

3

M

1

H

1

K

5

G

4

J

3

F

2

P

1

B

2

S

2

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Between 0 and 10
  2. B) Between 10 and 20
  3. C) Between 20 and 30
  4. D) Between 30 and 40

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

18) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource has the greatest continual use.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

3

M

1

H

1

K

5

G

4

J

3

F

2

P

1

B

2

S

2

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 3
  2. B) Resource 1
  3. C) Resource 2
  4. D) Resource 4

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

19) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource has the greatest continual use.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

5

M

1

H

1

K

5

G

5

J

3

F

2

P

1

B

2

S

2

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 4
  2. B) Resource 2
  3. C) Resource 3
  4. D) Resource 5

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

20) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource is used the least.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

5

M

1

H

1

K

4

G

5

J

3

F

2

P

1

B

2

S

2

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 1
  2. B) Resource 2
  3. C) Resource 4
  4. D) Resource 5

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

21) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource is used the most.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

5

M

1

H

1

K

4

G

5

J

3

F

2

P

1

B

2

S

2

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 1
  2. B) Resource 2
  3. C) Resource 4
  4. D) Resource 5

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

22) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource is used the most.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

3, 5

M

1, 2

H

1

K

4

G

2,5

J

3

F

4, 1

P

1

B

2

S

3, 4

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 4
  2. B) Resource 2
  3. C) Resource 1
  4. D) Resource 5

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

23) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource is used the least.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

3, 5

M

1, 2

H

1

K

4

G

2, 5

J

3

F

4, 1

P

1

B

2

S

3, 4

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 4
  2. B) Resource 2
  3. C) Resource 1
  4. D) Resource 3

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

24) Use the Gantt chart and activity list to determine which resource is released from this project for use in another project the earliest.

 

Activity

Resources

Activity

Resources

R

3, 5

M

1, 2

H

1

K

4

G

2, 5

J

3

F

4, 1

P

1

B

2

S

3, 4

T

4

W

3

  1. A) Resource 2
  2. B) Resource 4
  3. C) Resource 1
  4. D) Resource 3

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

25) A basic Gantt chart:

  1. A) Clearly displays early and late start and finish times for all activities.
  2. B) Cannot be used to track the project's progress.
  3. C) Permits scheduling resources well before they are needed.
  4. D) Shows dummy activities to preserve network logic.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

26) Gantt charts cannot depict float.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

27) Gantt charts can display early start or late start logic.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

28) What is a Gantt chart, what information does one provide, and what are the benefits of using one?

Answer:  A Gantt chart is a useful tool for creating a project network. Gantt charts establish a time-phased network, which links project activities to a project schedule baseline. Gantt charts also can be used as a project tracking tool to assess the difference between planned and actual performance. Some benefits of Gantt charts are: 1) they are very easy to read and comprehend, 2) they identify the project network coupled with its schedule baseline, 3) they allow for updating and project control, 4) they are useful for identifying resource needs and assigning resources to tasks, and 5) they are easy to create.

Diff: 1

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

29) Use the information in the table to create a baseline Gantt chart for the project where activity lengths are given in days.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

6

--

B

3

A

C

7

A

D

5

B

E

10

C

F

8

D, E

G

6

F

H

4

G

J

10

G

K

5

H, J

Answer: 

 

Diff: 2

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

30) A project manager ascertained that five different resources are needed to complete a project that has been estimated to last 37 days. Just to be on the safe side, the project manager told the client that the project would definitely be delivered in 40 days and 40 nights and arranged to rent the resources for that period of time. The project manager goes to the local rental center at the start of day 1 of the project, signs a 40-day lease agreement for all five resources, and brings them to the site to begin the project. Analyze the Gantt chart and resource list (activity durations are in parenthesis) and determine how much money is being wasted with this rental plan. If each resource could be rented for just the time it takes to complete each activity, what would the charge to the project be?

 

 

Resource Number

Daily Rate

1

$1,000

2

$1,200

3

$500

4

$750

5

$800

 

Activity

Length

Activity

Length

H

3

S

3

M

9

J

1

P

6

W

4

B

7

T

4

R

9

G

4

F

5

K

10

 

 

Answer:  The project manager has paid for 40 days of capacity for each resource and the sum of the resources costs is $4,250. The total rental cost is 40 × $4,250 = $170,000.

The actual use of the resources is as follows:

Resource 1 = 18 × $1,000 = $18,000

Resource 2 = 15 × $1,200 = $18,000

Resource 3 = 5 × $500 = $2,500

Resource 4 = 14 × $750 = $10,500

Resource 5 = 13 × $800 = $10,400

The total cost for actual use is $59,400, so there is $170,000 - $59,400 = $110,600 wasted.

Diff: 3

Section:  10.2 Gantt Charts

LO:  10.2: Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

31) The process of accelerating a project is referred to as:

  1. A) Streamlining.
  2. B) Expediting.
  3. C) Rushing.
  4. D) Crashing.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

32) One reason for crashing a project is:

  1. A) The project has slipped behind schedule.
  2. B) That the initial schedule may be too pessimistic.
  3. C) Market needs change and the project is not in demand any more.
  4. D) There are no repercussions for delivering the project late.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

33) Which of these approaches will NOT accelerate the completion of a project?

  1. A) Improve the productivity of existing project resources.
  2. B) Increase the bureaucratic oversight.
  3. C) Improve the working method.
  4. D) Increase the quantity of personnel and equipment.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

34) In order to accelerate completion of a project, the manager must crash critical path activities.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

35) In an actual project, one means of crashing critical path activities would be to perform at a lower level of quality.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

36) The critical path may not contain a dummy activity.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

37) Brook's Law states that the typical crashing decision to add more resources to an activity only delays the activity further.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.3: Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

38) If an activity's cost is plotted against its duration on axes with zeros at the origin:

  1. A) The slope of the line is positive because it costs more to finish an activity more quickly.
  2. B) The slope of the line is negative because a shorter activity costs less than a longer one.
  3. C) The slope of the line is negative because it costs more to finish an activity more quickly.
  4. D) The slope of the line is positive because a longer activity costs more than a shorter one.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

39) The most common method for shortening activity durations involves the decision to:

  1. A) Eliminate bureaucracy.
  2. B) Alter the technology used in the activity.
  3. C) Assign more senior personnel to the activity.
  4. D) Increase project resources.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

40) An activity performed by a subcontractor is scheduled for 20 weeks at an anticipated cost of $100,000. Due to slippage on the critical path you need to reduce this activity by three weeks. If the subcontractor informs you that the activity can be completed in 16 weeks for $200,000, what is the slope for the activity?

  1. A) $5,000 per week
  2. B) $33,333 per week
  3. C) $25,000 per week
  4. D) $12,500 per week

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

41) Given the cost information in the table, what is the cheapest activity to crash on a per week basis?

 

Activity

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

A

8

$1,000

5

$6,000

B

6

2,000

4

6,000

C

9

2,500

6

8,000

D

12

4,000

8

10,000

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

42) Use the information in the table (all times are in days) to determine the lowest cost minimum completion time if the base cost for each activity finished in normal time is $1,000.

 

Activity

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Crash Cost ($/day)

Predecessor

A

10

6

$70

--

B

6

3

$40

--

C

2

2

--

B

D

4

2

$60

C

E

6

4

$80

A

F

8

5

$90

D, E

  1. A) $7,120
  2. B) $6,910
  3. C) $6,790
  4. D) $6,830

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

43) Use the information in the table (all times are in days) to determine the lowest total cost for a 20-day project if the base cost for each activity finished in normal time is $1,000.

 

Activity

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Crash Cost ($/day)

Predecessor

A

10

6

$70

--

B

6

3

$40

--

C

2

2

--

B

D

4

2

$60

C

E

6

4

$80

A

F

8

5

$90

D, E

  1. A) $6,280
  2. B) $6,390
  3. C) $6,530
  4. D) $6,740

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

44) Use the information in the table (all times are in days) to determine the lowest extra cost for an 18-day project if the base cost for each activity finished in normal time is $1,000.

 

Activity

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Crash Cost ($/day)

Predecessor

A

10

6

$70

--

B

6

3

$40

--

C

2

2

--

B

D

4

2

$60

C

E

6

4

$80

A

F

8

5

$90

D, E

  1. A) $400
  2. B) $420
  3. C) $440
  4. D) $460

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

45) It costs $75 per day for each day that a construction crew is on site. The project manager determines that most activities can be crashed and has listed the crashing costs next to the minimum time for each activity. Use this information to determine the lowest cost for this project. All times given are in days.

 

Activity

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Crash Cost ($/day)

Predecessor

A

10

6

$70

--

B

6

3

$40

--

C

2

2

--

B

D

4

2

$60

C

E

6

4

$80

A

F

8

5

$90

D, E

  1. A) $1,720
  2. B) $1,750
  3. C) $1,780
  4. D) $1,810

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

46) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. What is the total cost for completing this project in 40 days?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

A

--

8

$12,000

5

$22,000

B

A

12

$18,000

9

$32,000

C

A

15

$22,000

9

$62,000

D

B

3

$9,000

2

$18,000

E

C

9

$15,000

5

$35,000

F

E

7

$5,000

5

$8,000

G

D

8

$13,000

6

$23,000

H

A

12

$20,000

8

$32,000

J

H

6

$45,000

4

$56,000

  1. A) $172,000
  2. B) $218,000
  3. C) $192,000
  4. D) $159,000

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

47) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. What is the lowest total cost for completing this project in 35 days?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

A

--

8

$12,000

5

$22,000

B

A

12

$18,000

9

$32,000

C

A

15

$22,000

9

$62,000

D

B

3

$9,000

2

$18,000

E

C

9

$15,000

5

$35,000

F

E

7

$5,000

5

$8,000

G

D

8

$13,000

6

$23,000

H

A

12

$20,000

8

$32,000

J

H

6

$45,000

4

$56,000

  1. A) $211,500
  2. B) $197,500
  3. C) $203,500
  4. D) $194,500

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

48) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. There is a penalty of $4,000 per week for every week the project exceeds 37 weeks. What is the lowest total cost for completing this project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

A

--

8

$12,000

5

$22,000

B

A

12

$18,000

9

$32,000

C

A

15

$22,000

9

$62,000

D

B

3

$9,000

2

$18,000

E

C

9

$15,000

5

$35,000

F

E

7

$5,000

5

$8,000

G

D

8

$13,000

6

$23,000

H

A

12

$20,000

8

$32,000

J

H

6

$45,000

4

$56,000

  1. A) $172,000
  2. B) $184,000
  3. C) $187,000
  4. D) $192,500

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

49) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. There is a penalty of $6,000 per week for every week the project extends beyond 25 weeks. What is the lowest total cost duration for completing this project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

A

--

8

$12,000

5

$22,000

B

A

12

$18,000

9

$32,000

C

A

15

$22,000

9

$62,000

D

B

3

$9,000

2

$18,000

E

C

9

$15,000

5

$35,000

F

E

7

$5,000

5

$8,000

G

D

8

$13,000

6

$23,000

H

A

12

$20,000

8

$32,000

J

H

6

$45,000

4

$56,000

  1. A) 34 weeks
  2. B) 36 weeks
  3. C) 40 weeks
  4. D) 43 weeks

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

50) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. What is the total cost for completing this project as quickly as possible?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

A

--

8

$12,000

5

$22,000

B

A

12

$18,000

9

$32,000

C

A

15

$22,000

9

$62,000

D

B

3

$9,000

2

$18,000

E

C

9

$15,000

5

$35,000

F

E

7

$5,000

5

$8,000

G

D

8

$13,000

6

$23,000

H

A

12

$20,000

8

$32,000

J

H

6

$45,000

4

$56,000

  1. A) $244,000
  2. B) $255,600
  3. C) $258,333
  4. D) $262,000

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

51) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. There is a penalty of $250 per week for every week the project extends beyond 32 weeks. What is the duration of the least expensive project possible?

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

8

5

$1,000

2,000

 

B

6

4

1,500

2,000

A

C

8

5

1,800

2,300

A

D

12

9

1,000

1,800

B

E

14

11

950

1,450

B

F

9

7

1,500

1,900

C, D

G

7

5

2,300

2,800

E, F

  1. A) 38 weeks
  2. B) 37 weeks
  3. C) 36 weeks
  4. D) 35 weeks

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

52) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. There is a penalty of $250 per week for every week the project extends beyond 32 weeks. What is the cost of the least expensive project possible?

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

8

5

$1,000

2,000

 

B

6

4

1,500

2,000

A

C

8

5

1,800

2,300

A

D

12

9

1,000

1,800

B

E

14

11

950

1,450

B

F

9

7

1,500

1,900

C, D

G

7

5

2,300

2,800

E, F

  1. A) $11,450
  2. B) $12,450
  3. C) $13,450.
  4. D) $14,450

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

53) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. What is the lowest total cost for completing this project in 33 weeks?

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

8

5

$1,000

2,000

 

B

6

4

1,500

2,000

A

C

8

5

1,800

2,300

A

D

12

9

1,000

1,800

B

E

14

11

950

1,450

B

F

9

7

1,500

1,900

C, D

G

7

5

2,300

2,800

E, F

  1. A) $11,250
  2. B) $11,500
  3. C) $12,250
  4. D) $12,500

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

54) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. For every week longer than 30 weeks, there is a penalty of $300. What is the highest total cost for completing this project?

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

8

5

$1,000

2,000

 

B

6

4

1,500

2,000

A

C

8

5

1,800

2,300

A

D

12

9

1,000

1,800

B

E

14

11

950

1,450

B

F

9

7

1,500

1,900

C, D

G

7

5

2,300

2,800

E, F

  1. A) $14,250
  2. B) $13,950
  3. C) $13,550
  4. D) $13,150

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

55) Quite often the marginal gains in employee productivity decrease dramatically with the increased use of overtime.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

56) What is project crashing and what are three reasons why it might be important to do so?

Answer:  The process of accelerating a project is referred to as crashing. Crashing a project directly relates to resource commitment. The more resources we are willing to expend, the faster we can push the project to its finish. There can be good reasons to crash a project, among them are:

The initial schedule may be too optimistic.

Market needs change and the project is in demand earlier than anticipated.

The project has slipped considerably behind schedule.

The contractual situation provides even more incentive to avoid schedule slippage.

Diff: 1

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

57) What are the three principal methods for accelerating a project and under what circumstances might these methods yield little gain?

Answer:  There are three principal methods for crashing project activities:

Improving the productivity of existing project resources;

Changing the working method employed for the activity, usually by altering the technology and types of resources employed;

Increasing the quantity of project resources, including personnel, plant and equipment.

In order to improve the productivity of existing project resources, the project manager must find more efficient ways to work with the people, equipment, and materials. More efficiency means less waste and there are few that would argue that waste is beneficial. The project manager may change the working method by altering technology or resources types. Increased automation, more powerful equipment, and more senior personnel might all be deployed to accelerate the project. The author indicates that the most common method for shortening activity durations involves the decision to increase project resources, either by working the current resources for longer hours or by adding to the number of resources in the pool. A feature common to all of these approaches is that at some point the resources will stretch to their limit and the marginal gain will be prohibitively expensive, even to the point that any efforts to squeeze another fraction from them will yield negative results. Changes in the middle of a project might disrupt project team harmony, throwing them off of a learning curve and adversely affect team morale.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

58) Crashing costs for a project are governed by the function:

 

50t2 + 100t

where t represents the number of days crashed (see graph). The project manager wants to crash the project, and is willing to pay up to $1,000 per day saved. How many days can be saved before the per-day cost is too high?

 

Answer:  We can crash the project to the point where the per day cost of crashing equals $1,000, so the manager needs to find the value of t where the slope of the crash cost function equals that amount. The slope is given by the first derivative of the crash cost function:

 

Cost = 50t2 + 100t

 = 2 × 50t2-1 + 100t1-1 = 100t + 100

1000 = 100t + 100

t = 9 days

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

59) What is the cost to finish this project (all activity durations are in weeks and costs in US dollars) as quickly as possible?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

A

 

12

10

1000

1500

B

A

5

3

1200

1950

C

A

9

7

1500

2100

D

B, C

14

10

1800

2100

E

B

4

3

1400

1875

F

D

9

8

1000

1450

G

E

7

5

700

1200

H

F, G

11

8

2000

3000

I

H

8

6

1100

1700

Answer:  The initial project duration is 63 weeks thanks to the valuable contributions of path ACDFHI. Path ABEGHI is 47 weeks and path ABDFHI is 59 weeks long. The base project cost is $11,700.

Purchases from least expensive to most expensive are as follows:

Activity D reduced 4 days for $300

Activity A reduced 2 days for $500

Activity C reduced 2 days for $600

Activity I reduced 2 days for $600

Activity H reduced 3 days for $1,000

Activity F reduced 1 day for $450

The new project length is 49 days with path lengths of ACDFHI=49; ABEGHI=40; and ABDFHI=45. The total project cost is now $15,150.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

60) A project has the activity duration and cost information indicated in the table where all times are in weeks. What is the lowest total cost for completing this project in 33 weeks?

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

8

5

$1,000

2,000

 

B

6

4

1,500

2,000

A

C

8

5

1,800

2,300

A

D

12

9

1,000

1,800

B

E

14

11

950

1,450

B

F

9

7

1,500

1,900

C, D

G

7

5

2,300

2,800

E, F

Answer:  $12,250 is the least expensive 33 week project. The uncrashed duration is 42 weeks at a cost of $10,050 for activities. The least expensive activities on a per week basis are F ($200), B ($250), G ($250), and D ($266.67). It is possible to reduce the project by 2 weeks each by crashing F, B, and G, which would make a 36 week project. Activity D can be reduced by three weeks at the aforementioned cost. Take the Crash cost prices for activities FBGD and the normal cost prices for ACE for a total of $12,250.

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

61) What is the minimum completion cost of this project if there is a penalty of $1,000 for each day the project lasts longer than 27 days? Activity durations in days and crash costs in dollars are given in the table.

 

Activity

Reg Length

Crash Length

Reg Cost

Crash Cost

Activity

Reg Length

Crash Length

Reg Cost

Crash Cost

A

7

6

400

1,200

L

7

5

800

1,500

C

1

1

450

450

N

6

5

500

1,250

D

9

6

550

2,350

R

4

4

600

600

E

9

7

500

1,650

S

10

8

450

1,350

J

2

1

600

1,800

Y

8

6

675

1,750

 

 

Answer:  The initial project duration is 34 days. Path analysis and purchases made in order of least expensive to most expensive are given in the table.

 

Step

Starting Path Lengths

Activity Crashed

# Days Crashed

Cost per Day

Total Cost

1

JALSY=34

JANDCY=33

JAERY=30

L

1

$350

$350

2

JALSY=33

JANDCY=33

JAERY=29

A

1

$800

$800

3

JALSY=31

JANDCY=31

JAERY=27

Y

2

$537.50

$1,075

4

JALSY=30

JANDCY=30

JAERY=27

L

D

1

1

$350

$600

$950

5

JALSY=29

JANDCY=29

JAERY=27

 

 

 

 

 

Subsequent purchases will exceed the $1,000 penalty, so the project manager is better served by paying two penalty days at $1,000 each. The total cost of the project including the penalties is $10,700.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

62) Consider the project described by the table where all durations are in days and the costs in dollars. What is the minimum cost of completing this project in 150 days?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

A

15

12

800

1,100

 

B

A

30

22

2,500

4,100

C

A

45

37

21,000

33,000

D

C

20

17

15,000

22,000

E

D

5

4

3,000

3,300

F

B

10

7

13,000

15,500

G

F

30

25

41,000

46,000

H

J, E

50

45

30,000

37,500

J

F

25

20

20,000

25,000

K

G

35

33

6,500

7,200

L

K

40

33

16,500

19,400

M

L

15

13

14,400

18,600

N

K

30

26

23,500

27,500

P

H

20

15

15,250

23,500

Q

N, P

5

5

5,000

5,000

Answer:  The crash cost per day has been added to the table. Possible routes through the network are:

ABFGKLM=175

ABFGKNQ=55

ABFJHPQ=155

ACDEHPQ=160

and the initial project cost is $227,450.

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Minimum Time

Normal Cost

Crash cost

$/day

A

 

15

12

800

1,100

100

B

A

30

22

2,500

4,100

200

C

A

45

37

21,000

31,000

1500

D

C

20

17

15,000

22,000

2333

E

D

5

4

3,000

3,300

300

F

B

10

7

13,000

15,500

833

G

F

30

25

41,000

46,000

1000

H

J, E

50

45

30,000

37,500

1500

J

F

25

20

20,000

25,000

1000

K

G

35

33

6,500

7,200

350

L

K

40

33

16,500

19,400

414

M

L

15

13

14,400

18,600

2100

N

K

30

26

23,500

27,500

1000

P

H

20

15

15,250

23,500

1650

Q

N, P

5

5

5,000

5,000

 

 

Purchasing critical activities from least expensive to most expensive without switching critical paths proceeds as follows:

 

Purchase

Activity

# Days

Path Lengths

Extra Cost

1

A

3

ABFGKLM=172

ABFGKNQ=152

ABFJHPQ=152

ACDEHPQ=157

300

2

B

8

ABFGKLM=164

ABFGKNQ=144

ABFJHPQ=144

ACDEHPQ=157

1,600

3

K

2

ABFGKLM=162

ABFGKNQ=142

ABFJHPQ=144

ACDEHPQ=157

700

4

L

5

ABFGKLM=157

ABFGKNQ=142

ABFJHPQ=144

ACDEHPQ=157

2,071

5

L

 

 

E

1

 

 

1

ABFGKLM=157

ABFGKNQ=142

ABFJHPQ=144

ACDEHPQ=157

414.30

 

 

300

6

L

 

 

C

1

 

 

1

ABFGKLM=156

ABFGKNQ=142

ABFJHPQ=144

ACDEHPQ=156

414.30

 

 

1,250

7

F

 

 

C

3

 

 

3

ABFGKLM=153

ABFGKNQ=139

ABFJHPQ=141

ACDEHPQ=153

2,500

 

 

3,750

8

G

 

 

C

3

 

 

3

ABFGKLM=150

ABFGKNQ=136

ABFJHPQ=144

ACDEHPQ=150

3,000

 

 

3,750

 

 

Total reduction is 25 days at an additional cost of $20,050, for a total project cost of $247,500.

3A's = 300

8B's = 1600

7C's = 8750

1E = 300

3F's = 2500

3G's = 3000

2K's = 700

7L's = 2900

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

63) What is the minimum cost completion time for this project if the activities have normal and crash costs as indicated and there is a $1,000 fixed cost for each day on site plus a $500 penalty for each activity that is crashed? The crash costs represent the cost of a fully expedited activity. For example, reducing activity Y from 13 days to 12 days costs an extra $100 on top of the $500 expediting cost for a total cost of $2,600. Reducing Y from 13 days to 10 days costs an extra $300 on top of the $500 expediting cost, for a total activity cost of $2,800.

 

Activity

Predecessor

Normal Time

Normal Cost

Crash Time

Crash Cost

Z

 

2

$2,000

2

$2,000

Y

 

13

$2,000

10

$2,300

X

 

19

$2,000

15

$3,000

W

Z

18

$2,000

15

$3,000

V

X

10

$2,000

9

$3,000

U

Y

13

$2,000

11

$3,000

T

W

18

$2,000

14

$4,000

S

V

4

$2,000

3

$3,000

R

U

6

$2,000

5

$3,000

Q

R, S

15

$2,000

13

$3,000

P

T

13

$2,000

12

$3,000

N

P, Q

4

$2,000

4

$2,000

Answer:  The project before any expediting takes 55 days thanks to path ZWTPN. Path XVSQN has a 52-day duration and path YURQN has a 51-day duration. The initial cost of the project is $24,000 for the uncrashed activities plus $55,000 for the fixed cost for a total cost of $79,000.

Crashing should take place in this sequence:

1st: Reduce activity W by 3 days. This costs $1,000 plus the $500 expediting charge but trims three days off the fixed cost saving $3,000 for a net savings of $1,500.

The project is now 52 days thanks to path ZWTPN and XVSQN at a cost of $77,500. Any further action may reduce the project length but will increase the project's cost. Crashing activity T by one day and activity X by one day adds $1,750 to the cost column and saves only $1,000 for a net cost of $750.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

64) The heir to the throne was due 56 days from now and the first-time father had a serious construction project on his hands converting his man cave into a nursery. The seven activities, their normal and expedited times (in days) and costs appear in the table. What is the minimum cost to ensure that this project is completed in 56 days? Which activities should be reduced and by how many days?

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

5

3

500

1100

 

B

18

15

900

2300

A

C

12

9

2500

3000

A

D

9

7

500

650

B

E

15

12

3000

5000

B

F

12

10

4000

5000

C, D

G

20

15

3600

4800

E, F

Answer:  The project before any expediting takes 64 days. The activities that should be expedited are D, for 2 days at $75/day; G for 5 days at $240/days; and A for 1 day at $300/day. The total cost to expedite is $1,650 in addition to the normal cost of $15,000.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

65) The heir to the throne was due 60 days from now and the first-time father had a serious construction project on his hands converting his man cave into a nursery. The seven activities, their normal and expedited times (in days) and costs appear in the table. Just to be on the safe side, he decided to bring the project in at 53 days in case the delivery was a week early. Tell him what the least expensive 53-day project is; which activities should be reduced in duration, by how many days, and at the total cost, so he can roll up the sleeves on his "World's Greatest Dad" sweatshirt, and get to work.

 

Activity

Normal time

Crash time

Normal Cost

Crash Cost

Predecessor

A

5

3

500

1100

 

B

18

15

900

2300

A

C

12

9

2500

3000

A

D

9

7

500

650

B

E

15

12

3000

5000

B

F

12

10

4000

5000

C, D

G

20

15

3600

4800

E, F

Answer:  The project before any expediting takes 64 days. The activities that should be expedited are D, for 2 days at $75/day; G for 5 days at $240/days; and A for 2 days at $300/day, and B for 2 days at $466.67/day. The total cost to expedite is $2,883.33 in addition to the normal cost of $15,000, for a total tab of $17,883.33 plus a lifetime of disappointment and shame.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.4: Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

66) An activity on an arrow network:

  1. A) Cannot have more arrows than nodes.
  2. B) Cannot have more nodes than arrows.
  3. C) Has one more node than arrows.
  4. D) Has one more arrow than nodes.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  10.3 Crashing Projects

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

67) The AOA network described by this table needs:

 

Activity

Predecessor

A

--

B

--

C

A, B

D

B

E

C, D

  1. A) Zero dummy activities.
  2. B) One dummy activity.
  3. C) Two dummy activities.
  4. D) Three dummy activities.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

68) The AOA network described by this table needs:

 

Activity

Predecessor

A

--

B

--

C

A

D

A, B

E

C

F

C, D

  1. A) Zero dummy activities.
  2. B) One dummy activity.
  3. C) Two dummy activities.
  4. D) Three dummy activities.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

69) What information is NOT included in the nodes for an AOA network?

  1. A) Label
  2. B) Early start time
  3. C) Late finish time
  4. D) Early finish time

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

70) Dummy activities have a duration equal to the:

  1. A) Slack on the critical path.
  2. B) Length of the predecessor.
  3. C) Length of the successor.
  4. D) Lag needed to preserve network logic.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

71) The critical path of this network is:

 

  1. A) 14.
  2. B) 15.
  3. C) 12.
  4. D) 13.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

72) The fastest completion time for this project is:

 

  1. A) 14.
  2. B) 15.
  3. C) 16.
  4. D) 17.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

73) What is the late finish for activity D in the network shown in the diagram?

  1. A) 15
  2. B) 16
  3. C) 17
  4. D) 18

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

74) Which of the activities in the diagram have slack?

  1. A) C and D
  2. B) B and D
  3. C) C and E
  4. D) B and E

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

75) What is the duration of the project shown in the network?

  1. A) 36
  2. B) 37
  3. C) 38
  4. D) 39

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

76) An AOA network:

  1. A) Cannot show a merge activity.
  2. B) Cannot show a burst activity.
  3. C) Cannot have consecutive merge and burst activities.
  4. D) Can have all of the features described in A-C above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

77) AOA networks have an advantage over AON networks:

  1. A) If the project is complex.
  2. B) Because they are easier to read for novices.
  3. C) When it comes to software packages for project management.
  4. D) When the task of network labeling is considered.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

78) AON networks have an advantage over AOA networks:

  1. A) If the project under study is complex.
  2. B) Because they don't need dummy activities.
  3. C) In the construction industry because they are the norm.
  4. D) When it is critical to highlight milestones.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

79) Most project management software employs AOA diagramming.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

80) AOA is a more useful technique than AON if the project is complex and has many significant milestones.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

81) Dummy activities are used in AOA networks to indicate the existence of precedent relationships between activities and their event nodes.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

82) Sketch the network described in the table in AOA format.

 

Activity

Predecessor

A

--

B

A

C

A

D

B

E

B, C

F

D

G

D

H

F, G

K

G

L

H, K

Answer: 

Diff: 1

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

83) Determine early start and early finish times for all activities in this network. Activity duration in days appears under each arrow.

 

Answer:  Early start and early finish times for all activities appear in the table.

 

Task

Early Start

Early Finish

A

0

1

B

1

8

C

1

6

D

8

9

E

8

16

F

9

18

G

9

23

H

23

31

K

23

26

L

31

37

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

84) Mick has a project consisting of eight activities (listed in the table with durations and precedence requirements) to complete. He assigned his intern Guinness to sketch a network diagram in AOA and Guinness produced the sketch shown below. Discuss any issues with the apprentice's diagram.

 

Activity

Activity time

Predecessor

A

6

 

B

8

 

C

5

A

D

9

A, B

E

12

A

F

11

D, E

G

6

C, F

 

Answer:  There is a need for only one dummy activity, in order to distinguish between tasks requiring A and the only task requiring both A and B.

 

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

85) Mick has a project consisting of eight activities as listed in the table (with durations in days). He assigned his intern Guinness to sketch a network diagram in AOA and Guinness produced the sketch shown below. Determine the early and late start and finish times for all of these activities.

 

Activity

Activity time

A

6

B

8

C

5

D

9

E

12

F

11

G

6

H

3

 

Answer:  The table shows the requested information.

 

Activity

Activity time

Early Start

Early Finish

Late Start

Late Finish

A

6

0

6

0

6

B

8

0

8

1

9

C

5

6

11

24

29

D

9

8

17

9

18

E

12

6

18

6

18

F

11

18

29

18

29

G

6

29

35

29

35

H

3

35

38

35

38

Diff: 2

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.5: Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

86) The BEST approach to network representation of a large and hugely complex project is to:

  1. A) Represent all activities and relationships.
  2. B) Simplify network logic and reduce it to the most meaningful relationships.
  3. C) Use AOA.
  4. D) Use AON.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

87) A complex project that is managed using a top-down, bottom-up approach to network diagrams means that:

  1. A) Management's top-down portion of the network contains the greatest detail.
  2. B) Top management does not have a basis for understanding the actual development of the project.
  3. C) The top tier summary network does not give top management the basis for understanding the actual development of the project.
  4. D) The bottom level information cannot be understood by those performing the actual work.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

88) Networks would NOT be well suited for:

  1. A) Planning a construction project.
  2. B) Planning a wedding.
  3. C) Planning a software upgrade.
  4. D) Planning monthly production.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

89) When involved in a project involving many subcontractors:

  1. A) It is imperative that the network is a mutually accessible document.
  2. B) One subcontractor's network diagram should never be shown to another for ethical reasons.
  3. C) PERT/CPM should not be used.
  4. D) It is illegal to reveal one subcontractor's plan to another.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

90) Research has shown that, in general:

  1. A) There is a tendency to underestimate activity lengths.
  2. B) There is a tendency to overestimate activity lengths.
  3. C) The activity lengths are estimated correctly.
  4. D) The activity lengths are estimated correctly but the networks are drawn incorrectly.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

91) Networks are adaptable and useful for all scheduling challenges that an organization faces.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

92) Most activity estimations using PERT methods lead to overly optimistic activity duration estimates.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

93) For large projects, network diagrams are more useful if they are completely detailed.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

94) What are the strengths and weaknesses of AOA and AON techniques?

Answer:  Both activity on arc (AOA) and activity on node (AON) create a sequential logic for all activities within a project. AON techniques are easier to learn and are the format of choice for project management software. AON mode allows for ease of labeling and interpretation as long as the number of activities is not too large. AOA is widely used in the construction industry and can be easier on the eyes if the project has a large number of activities. Another advantage is that the use of arrows can provide some indication of activity length, which may be difficult to visualize in AON format. Milestones at the start or end of an activity are easy to locate in AOA format. AOA suffers from the difficulty of dummy activities and data dispersion (instead of having all duration and early and late start and finish times in a node, these tidbits may be spread along the length of the arrow).

Diff: 1

Section:  10.4 Activity-on-Arrow Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

95) How might a project manager alter a straightforward PERT network to accommodate an inordinately large and complex project?

Answer:  A large project may require a network with thousands of activities, relegating the classic 8.5×11 sheet of paper to the same drawer as a the buttonhook and the 8-track tape. The project manager and his network artist should try to simplify the network logic and reduce it to the most obvious or meaningful relationships. Rather than showing every possible path through the network and every activity sequence, a meta-network that shows only the key subroutines or network paths can be created. These subroutines can be further broken down by the project manager or administrator responsible for their completion, but the overall project network is streamlined to include only the most general or relevant project activities.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

96) What are four criticisms and caveats to bear in mind as you develop a project activity network?

Answer:  There are several criticisms and caveats that must be considered as we develop project activity networks, the first of which is that networks can become too large and complex to be meaningful. For a project that is hugely complex, the number of discrete activities can run into the thousands and the project duration can extend for years. The complex interrelationships of all these activities and the difficulty of forecasting activity lengths some time into the future makes a fully detailed activity network difficult to realize. Second, faulty reasoning in network construction can sometimes lead to oversimplification or incorrect representations. A multiple tiered approach sometimes compromises the information sharing aspect that is vital to project management. Third, networks are sometimes used for tasks for which they are not well suited. As the adage goes, "If it doesn't fit, get a bigger hammer," applies with the use of this valuable project management tool. In addition, networks used to control the behavior of subcontractors have special dangers. Subcontractors must be privy to the overall network and all subs must use consistent timeframe scaling and network techniques. Finally, there is a strong potential for positive bias in PERT estimation used in network construction. Most activity estimations using PERT methods lead to overly optimistic activity duration estimates.

Diff: 2

Section:  10.5 Controversies in the Use of Networks

LO:  10.6: Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

 

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