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Project Management 2016 - Pinto - Quiz - Chapter 11

MBA Project Management

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2016

Case study guides and online resources (2016)

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto

 

 

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4e (Pinto)

Chapter 11   Advanced Topics in Planning and Scheduling: Agile and Critical Chain

 

1) Traditional, highly structured approaches to planning and managing projects are recognized as being less effective for ________ than Agile Project Management.

  1. A) construction projects
  2. B) software development
  3. C) wedding planning
  4. D) university baccalaureate degrees

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

2) Which adjective is most appropriate for Agile Project Management?

  1. A) Iterative
  2. B) Sequential
  3. C) Linear
  4. D) Hirsute

 

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

3) Agile Project Management is well-suited for instances where

  1. A) Customer needs are well-defined.
  2. B) Time constraints exist.
  3. C) Customer needs change quickly.
  4. D) Budget constraints exist.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

4) The waterfall project development process is well-suited for instances where:

  1. A) Requirements are allowed to float throughout the duration of the project.
  2. B) Customer needs change quickly.
  3. C) Time constraints exist.
  4. D) Budget constraints exist.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

5) The sprint portion of the Agile Project Management process is targeted to last:

  1. A) 10 plus or minus 2 weeks.
  2. B) 7 plus or minus 1.5 weeks.
  3. C) 5 plus or minus 1.5 weeks.
  4. D) 2.5 plus or minus 1.5 weeks.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

6) The customers articulate the necessary features of a software project through:

  1. A) Stories.
  2. B) Tasks.
  3. C) Requests for proposal.
  4. D) Bid rigging.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

7) In Agile Project Management, the term "scrum" refers to:

  1. A) A period of enforced chaos.
  2. B) A meeting.
  3. C) The time when code is actually being written.
  4. D) Disagreements between the customer and the project team.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

8) In Agile Project Management, a sprint backlog is essentially a:

  1. A) Period of time.
  2. B) Punch list.
  3. C) Forecast.
  4. D) Meeting.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

9) Which of these numerical (quantity) comparisons is CORRECT?

  1. A) Scrum meeting > Sprint
  2. B) Scrum master > Development team
  3. C) Sprint time box > Project duration
  4. D) Daily scrum duration < Development work duration

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

10) Agile project management features a logical series of steps that occur sequentially, each one is begun only when its predecessor is complete.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

11) Agile project management is well-suited for the case where requirements change in the middle of project development.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

12) What is the waterfall planning process and when is the ideal approach to project development?

Answer:  The waterfall process is the traditional process used for the software development process; it emphasizes completion of each step in the cycle, investing significant effort in planning the entire project before moving out of the planning stage into system design, system implementation, and the following steps. This process was to a great extent dictated by the nature of the programming languages available (procedural) and the ease with which programs could be modified once the coding had been done.

The steps of the waterfall model are: Gather requirements, Design system, Implement system, Test system, Full deployment, and Maintenance. The waterfall paradigm works like an actual waterfall in that just as water doesn't flow uphill, once a level is complete, the developers can't go back and re-do something that was poorly implemented.

The waterfall development process works well when the customer requirements are very well understood and fixed, the product definition is stable and not subject to changes, the technology is understood, there are ample resources with required expertise, and the project is relatively short.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

13) What is Agile PM and what makes it ideal for many software development projects?

Answer:  Agile project management reflects a new era in project planning that places a premium on flexibility and evolving customer requirements throughout the development process. Agile PM recognizes the importance of these evolving customer needs and allows for an incremental, iterative planning process — one that stays connected to clients across the project life cycle. Agile PM is usually referred to as Scrum, which recognizes it is a mistake that once the initial conceptualization and planning have been completed, the project can simply be executed.

Agile PM turns development into a series of short development cycles known as the sprint that fit with a predetermined time box of one to four weeks in duration. This process is well-suited for deployment during software development projects, which are prone to constant change.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

14) What takes place in the Scrum process?

Answer:  In Agile PM, Scrum refers to the development strategy agreed to by all key members of the project. Scrum meetings involve assessing the current status of the project, evaluating the results of the previous Sprint, and setting the goals and time-box for the next iteration.

The Scrum process involves a set of meetings that manage the project development process through 1) Sprint Planning, 2) Daily Scrums, 3) the Development Work, 4) Sprint Review, and 5) Sprint Retrospective. During the Sprint three guidelines shape the process: a) no changes are made that would endanger or modify the sprint goal, b)quality goals to not decrease, and c) scope may be clarified and renegotiated between the project owner and the development team as more is learned.

The work to be performed in the Sprint is identified during the Sprint Planning session. This plan is created by the collaborative work of the entire Scrum team.

The Daily Scrum is a short (15 minutes) event that allows the development team an opportunity to synchronize their activities and create a plan for the next 24-hour time window. During the meeting, members of the development team explain what they accomplished in the past 24 hours to meet the Sprint goal, what they intend to work on during the current day, and identify any problems that might prevent the development team from completing the next Sprint goal.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

15) Compose a haiku using three or more of the key terms in Agile PM.

Answer:  Answers will vary, but should conform to the 5-7-5 syllable pattern. One example using only terms is:

Development team.

Product backlog, burndown chart,

Product owner, scrum.

 

Another example with a few connecting words for a poetic flourish is:

I am Scrum Master.

Where is the product owner?

Time box is closing.

 

An homage to Steve Jobs:

Development team.

Listen to user stories,

Then make something great.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

16) What are the key elements of extreme programming?

Answer:  Extreme Programming (XP) is a more aggressive form of Scrum and is a software development methodology intended to improve software quality and responsiveness to changing customer requirements. XP emphasizes keeping the programming code simple, reviewing it frequently, testing it early and often, and working normal business hours.

Two of the guiding features of XP are the process of refactoring and pair programming. In order to speed software development, functional testing of all requirements is done before coding begins and automated testing of the code is performed continuously throughout the project. Refactoring is the continuous process of streamlining the design and improving code, not waiting until final testing to edit and fix code. Pair programming demands that all code is written by teams of two programmers that literally work side by side on the same machine doing the coding.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

17) What is the motivation for programming in pairs using one terminal? How can this approach be more productive than having each of the two programmers at his own terminal?

Answer:  Pair programming demands that all code is written by teams of two programmers that literally work side by side on the same machine doing the coding. Pair programming can help programmers resolve issues and clarify interpretations of user stories that drive the requirements. While engaged in pair programming, the writer of the code, called the driver, receives assistance from the navigator (sometimes called the observer or pointer) who reviews the line of code and considers the strategic direction of the work. While pairs tend to spend 15% more time writing code, the resulting code has 15% fewer defects. In addition, coders learn from each other and surface more possibilities for solving problems than if just one person coded in isolation.

Diff: 3

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

18) What are some arguments against the XP technique of pair programming?

Answer:  Pair programming demands that all code is written by teams of two programmers that literally work side by side on the same machine doing the coding. Just as in any team environment, disengagement, such as when one coder is not hands on with the keyboard decides to use his tablet or smartphone to check email or update his Facebook page, negates any advantage pair programming might offer. Some pairings of programmers are less successful than others — if one coder is far more skilled, then a "watch and learn" approach may relegate the other coder to literally watching without offering any opinions. Also, if the coders do not fit together well for reasons of personality or approach to the task at hand, then the clash of personalities or work ethic may make them significantly less productive.

Diff: 3

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.1: Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

19) All of these happen during the sprint phase EXCEPT:

  1. A) Technical issues are forwarded to the product owner.
  2. B) Scope clarification.
  3. C) Sprint goal modification.
  4. D) Scope renegotiation.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

20) A product backlog:

  1. A) Shows remaining work in the sprint backlog.
  2. B) Is controlled by the customer.
  3. C) Shows what has been ordered to complete the project but not yet received from suppliers.
  4. D) Is a constantly evolving list.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

21) Which of these is a drawback for Agile Project Management?

  1. A) Final outcomes are well-defined since Agile requirements are clearly articulated at the start of the design phase.
  2. B) The users of the project deliverable tend to be uninformed as to project status until the delivery phase once the initial bid process has ended.
  3. C) The project team will be unsure the deliverable works since testing is delayed to the very end of the project.
  4. D) The frequent rescoping of a predictable project becomes wasted expense as it won't deliver added benefits.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

22) Which of these is a drawback for Agile Project Management?

  1. A) Final outcomes are well-defined since Agile requirements are clearly articulated at the start of the design phase.
  2. B) The users of the project deliverable tend to be uninformed as to project status until the delivery phase once the initial bid process has ended.
  3. C) The project team will be unsure the deliverable works since testing is delayed to the very end of the project.
  4. D) The frequent rescoping of a predictable project becomes wasted expense as it won't deliver added benefits.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

23) Which of these is difficult when Agile Project Management is used?

  1. A) Fixed-price contracts between customers and the project organization
  2. B) Altering or updating the project requirements
  3. C) Knowing for certain that the software is working as you progress through the project
  4. D) The frequent rescoping of a predictable project becomes wasted expense as it won't deliver added benefits.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

24) Wayne and Garth are engaged in XP and are constantly streamlining the design and improving the code. In XP terminology, they are engaged in:

  1. A) Scrumming.
  2. B) Refactoring.
  3. C) Sprinting.
  4. D) Time boxing.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

25) Wayne and Garth are engaged in XP and are writing code while sitting at one terminal. In XP terminology, they are engaged in:

  1. A) Scrumming.
  2. B) Refactoring.
  3. C) Pair programming.
  4. D) Time boxing.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

26) A key element of extreme programming is:

  1. A) Frequent communication among programmers, but infrequent communication with the customer.
  2. B) Understanding the problem completely before coding begins.
  3. C) A hierarchical management structure.
  4. D) Avoidance of programming features until they are actually needed.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

27) A scrum is one iteration of the Agile planning and executing cycle, that is, the actual "work" being done.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

28) A product backlog is the final list of what is needed to complete the project.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

29) The one element that Agile shares with traditional project management in a software development environment is that all testing is done at the very end of the project.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  11.1 Agile Project Management

LO:  11.2: Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as its drawbacks.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

30) The one element that Agile shares with traditional project management in a software development environment is that all testing is done at the very end of the project.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  11.2 Extreme Programming (XP)

LO:  11.3: Understand the key features of the Extreme Programming (XP) planning process for software projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

31) Refactoring is the continuous process of streamlining the design and improving code; not waiting until final testing to edit and fix code for a software project.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  11.2 Extreme Programming (XP)

LO:  11.3: Understand the key features of the Extreme Programming (XP) planning process for software projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

32) Extreme programming advocates a large development staff, several times the number of programmers than would appear in a traditional software project, since the objective is to deliver the project quickly.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  11.2 Extreme Programming (XP)

LO:  11.3: Understand the key features of the Extreme Programming (XP) planning process for software projects.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

33) The first step in TOC methodology is to:

  1. A) Identify the constraint.
  2. B) Exploit the constraint.
  3. C) Subordinate the system to the constraint.
  4. D) Elevate the constraint.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

34) ABC project organization has one workstation that is capable of generating the drawings that their clients study before accepting ABC's bid. ABC is currently in the midst of three proposal projects and knows which proposed project will be most profitable and which will be least profitable. The workstation is scheduled so that the most profitable project's work is done first and the least profitable project work is done last. This is an example of:

  1. A) Identifying a constraint.
  2. B) Exploiting a constraint.
  3. C) Elevating a constraint.
  4. D) Subordinating a system.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

35) XYZ project organization has one workstation that is capable of generating the drawings that their clients study before accepting XYZ's bid. XYZ is currently in the midst of three proposal projects and knows exactly when it will need to use the workstation. All other work to be done, both before and after the workstation is used, is scheduled such that it flows to the workstation and keeps it busy. Resources used after this step are less critical; so while the subsequent work and resources are important, they aren't viewed with the same reverence as the workstation. This is an example of:

  1. A) Identifying a constraint.
  2. B) Elevating a constraint.
  3. C) Subordinating a system.
  4. D) Exploiting a constraint.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

36) Keith welds a one-fourth-inch diameter ball bearing and a three-eighths-inch diameter ball bearing on each end of an eighth-inch diameter cylinder. Sure, the work is tedious, but he knows he's doing his part keeping this country running and lining his employer's pockets with sweet cash. His employer hopes to speed up this activity by hiring another skilled worker, and in doing so will:

  1. A) Subordinate the rest of the system.
  2. B) Identify the constraint.
  3. C) Exploit the constraint.
  4. D) Elevate the system constraint.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

37) The Central Limit Theorem says that if a number of probability distributions are summed:

  1. A) The standard deviation of the sum equals the sum of the standard deviations.
  2. B) The variance of the sum equals the sum of the variances.
  3. C) The standard deviation of the sum is greater than the sum of the standard deviations.
  4. D) The variance of the sum is less than the sum of the variances.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

38) A project consists of four activities with information as shown in the table. What is the overall variance of the project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Variance

A

--

10

4

B

A

12

3

C

B

16

5

D

C

14

6

  1. A) 4.24
  2. B) 8.41
  3. C) 18
  4. D) 24

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

39) A project consists of four activities with information as shown in the table. What is the overall standard deviation of the project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Variance

A

--

10

4

B

A

12

3

C

B

16

5

D

C

14

6

  1. A) 24
  2. B) 18
  3. C) 8.41
  4. D) 4.24

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

40) A project consists of four activities with information as shown in the table. What is the overall variance of the project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Standard Deviation

A

--

10

2

B

A

12

1

C

B

16

2

D

C

14

3

  1. A) 18
  2. B) 8
  3. C) 2.82
  4. D) 5.56

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

41) A project consists of four activities with information as shown in the table. What is the overall standard deviation of the project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Standard Deviation

A

--

10

2

B

A

12

1

C

B

16

2

D

C

14

3

  1. A) 8.00
  2. B) 4.24
  3. C) 2.82
  4. D) 5.56

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

42) A project consists of four activities with information as shown in the table. What is the overall variance of the project's duration?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Standard Deviation

A

--

10

2

B

A

12

3

C

A

16

2

D

B, C

14

3

  1. A) 13
  2. B) 17
  3. C) 26
  4. D) 35

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

43) A project consists of four activities with information as shown in the table. What is the overall standard deviation of the project's duration?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Standard Deviation

A

--

10

2

B

A

12

3

C

A

16

2

D

B, C

14

3

  1. A) 6.2
  2. B) 4.1
  3. C) 2.8
  4. D) 5.1

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

44) Which statement about critical chain methodology is BEST?

  1. A) Activity durations estimated at a 50% level of successful completion are shorter than those estimated at a 90% level of successful completion.
  2. B) Aggregated activity durations at a 90% level of successful completion are shorter than aggregated activity durations at a 50% level of successful completion.
  3. C) The total safety buffer for aggregated activity durations is smaller than the sum of safety buffers for individual activity durations at any likely level estimate.
  4. D) None of these statements is correct.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

45) Which of the following statements about CCPM activity networks is CORRECT?

  1. A) Project workers are more likely to meet a deadline for their activity than miss it.
  2. B) There are no milestones in the CCPM activity network.
  3. C) Project workers are more likely to miss a deadline for their activity than meet it.
  4. D) There is no project delivery deadline in the CCPM activity network.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

46) An important departure from traditional project management is that critical chain project management logic:

  1. A) Changes from a late finish to an early start approach.
  2. B) Factors in the effects of resource contention.
  3. C) Adjusts expected activity durations to reflect a 95% probability of completion on time.
  4. D) Creates a separate safety margin for each activity in the project.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

47) Which statement about critical chain project management is BEST?

  1. A) CCPM is a complete solution to current project management scheduling needs.
  2. B) In a multi-project environment where resources are shared, it is impossible to avoid multitasking.
  3. C) There is substantial large-scale empirical research that confirms the efficacy of CCPM.
  4. D) Lack of milestones within CCPM make coordination with external suppliers and subcontractors much easier.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.7 Critiques of CCPM

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

48) Successful implementation of CCPM depends on first:

  1. A) Identifying the critical chain that meanders through the project organization's portfolio of projects.
  2. B) Identifying the constraint that holds hostage the project organization's other resources.
  3. C) Examining and changing the culture of the project organization.
  4. D) Exploiting the drum by using it to subordinate the existing PERT network.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.7 Critiques of CCPM

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

49) Once the organization elevates its constraint, its system has no constraint.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

50) The Central Limit Theorem states that if a number of probability distributions are summed, the variance of the sum equals the sum of the variances of individual distributions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

51) The critical chain is usually the same as the critical path.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

52) What are the five steps behind the Theory of Constraints methodology and what takes place in each?

Answer:  The five steps in TOC methodology are to: identify the system constraint; exploit the system constraint; subordinate everything else to the system constraint; elevate the system constraint; and determine if a new constraint has been uncovered; then repeat the process. In order to identify the constraint, an intensive search must be made to uncover the root cause that limits the output of the system. To exploit the constraint, a strategy of focusing and viewing all activities in terms of this constraint is necessary; the firm must put the constraint to its best use before any other resource is considered. Subordination of the system requires resource commitment or scheduling decisions after handling the needs of the root constraint. The fourth step, elevating the constraint, seeks to improve the system by mitigating the effect of this bottleneck. If in fact, the constraint has been broken, then a new one has emerged. This new constraint throws the organization into the next cycle of identification, exploitation, subordination, and elevation.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

53) Your boss catches you at the water cooler one morning and assigns you an important task—to remove all the constraints from your project using the Theory of Constraints (TOC) five step process. What should your response be to your boss??

Answer:  The five steps in TOC methodology are to: identify the system constraint; exploit the system constraint; subordinate everything else to the system constraint; elevate the system constraint; and determine if a new constraint has been uncovered; then repeat the process. Just as every chain must have a weakest link, a system must always have a slowest step (one with the lowest capacity) that limits our ability to meet our objective. It is not possible to eliminate all constraints from a system. If one is solved, then there will be a new slowest step; it may well be faster than the previous slowest step, but nonetheless, it will be the slowest step in this new and improved system and this be the new system constraint.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

54) What is the difference between the critical path and the key system constraint?

Answer:  The critical path is defined as the earliest possible time on the activity network it can take to complete a project. The key system constraint is the one root cause from which all other scheduling problems evolve. All scheduling and resource problems associated with projects typically occur due to problems with trying to maintain the critical path, and hence its oft-made identification as the chief system constraint.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

55) Alexander Demetrius Dickson, ADD to his friends, has three big projects he is working on, and he can't seem to organize his time effectively. Each of the three projects, we'll call them A, B, and C, should take ten days to complete. He is currently contemplating two different approaches. Approach one is to work each project to completion before starting on the next. The problem with this approach is that he tends to burn out if he works on one task for an extended period of time. For every two days he works on one single task, he finds he must take a half day off. ADD's alternative is to multitask, that is, work on project A for a day, then switch to project B for a day, before switching to project C for a day. The problem with this approach is that there is a small setup time equaling one-quarter of a day associated with each transition. Use a Gantt chart to show the effect of each approach and determine which method is the best (has the overall fastest completion time) for performing this work.

Answer:  The actual task time and idle time are identical, the projects require 10 days each and there is a total of 7.5 days of setup (or burnout) time in each schedule. The top Gantt chart shows the effect of working straight through each project until completion. The total project time is ten days and the inserted idle time due to burnout is two days (shaded bars denote this rest period). The span of project A is twelve days. This would be followed by a rest period of a half day and then a similar pattern for project B. The final burnout day need not be considered (unless more projects follow) so the total time would be 37 days.

 

 

Multitasking appears as follows: times indicated on the timeline mark the end of the setup, so the 1.25 is one day of work on Project A followed by a one-quarter day setup, the 2.5 is the completion of the setup after the first day on Project B, and so on. It will take five iterations of the Gantt chart shown to complete all segments of projects A, B, and C, so the total time is 5×7.5=37.5, less the final quarter-day setup for a total time of 37.25 days; virtually the same as the above Gantt chart in terms of completion. The big difference is in the span of the jobs.

 

 

 

The big difference is in the span of the projects from their beginning to completion. The first schedule shows that Project A ends twelve days after it was begun. The same would hold true for projects B and C. For the second approach, project A ends 34.75 days after it was started, as do projects B and C.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.3 The Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

56) What is aggregated buffer and how can the appropriate amount be determined?

Answer:  Aggregated, or project, buffer is a consequence of the critical chain approach to project scheduling. Critical chain project management cuts activity length estimates in half and creates an overall aggregate buffer for the project manager to apply to the entire project as needed. Determination of the project buffer can be accomplished two different ways — the quick-and-dirty Goldratt technique that calls for retention of 50% of the total project buffer or a mathematically derived method suggested by Newbold, given by the equation:

 

Buffer = σ =

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

57) List any three criticisms of critical chain project management and rank them in order from the greatest to smallest threat to universal adoption of CCPM.

Answer:  Answers will vary with respect to rankings. The perceived weaknesses mentioned in the text are:

Lack of project milestones make coordinated scheduling with external suppliers problematic.

The lack of suitability for all types of projects and blatant repackaging of existing techniques is a concern.

The technique's usefulness at the program level has not been proven.

Concrete evidence of its success is almost exclusively anecdotal.

CCPM has not been shown to be a complete solution to current project management needs.

The CCPM stance on activity duration estimation padding is undocumented and excessive.

The shift required in corporate culture to eliminate buffers from activity estimates and create an environment of zero blame may be insurmountable.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.7 Critiques of CCPM

LO:  11.4: Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

58) Your next project consists of 5 consecutive 10-day activities, each estimated by a different worker in your organization. You have all secretly added your own safety margin of 4 days into your estimates and you watch in horror as the project manager whips out his copy of Critical Chain and slams it on the table midway through their first project meeting. "I'm taking your buffers and making them my own," he bellows. You recoil from this news and do some quick mental arithmetic. Now that you know the project manager is a Goldratt disciple, you know that the new project buffer will be:

  1. A) 25 days
  2. B) 20 days
  3. C) 15 days
  4. D) 10 days

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

59) Your next project consists of 8 consecutive 8-day activities, each estimated by a different worker in your organization. Your organizational culture dictates that you add your own safety margin of 3 days into your estimates. Unbeknownst to you, the project manager has recently converted to a critical chain project management view. The project manager knows perfectly well what sorts of games are played with activity estimates and she knows exactly how much activity padding takes place. What will the overall project safety margin be once the project manager reviews your estimates and makes the project schedule?

  1. A) 12 days
  2. B) 6 days
  3. C) 18 days
  4. D) 9 days

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

60) Your next project consists of 10 consecutive 8-day activities, each estimated by a different worker in your organization. Note that the estimators have not yet added any buffer to the 8-day figure. Your organizational culture dictates that you add your own safety margin of 30% into your estimates. The new project manager has just completed an excellent course in project management offered at the local university. When the first project meeting begins, he dazzles you with his wit and sophistication. You are considerably less charmed when he reveals that he has an exciting new technique for managing projects. He adheres to critical chain project management ideas and plans to create an overall project safety buffer after trimming the safety buffers from each of the 10 activities. How much closer has the project deadline moved?

  1. A) 12 days
  2. B) 6 days
  3. C) 18 days
  4. D) 9 days

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

61) A project consists of four consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in days) as shown in the table. Use Newbold's model to determine the aggregated one sigma buffer for this project.

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

A

10

20

B

15

25

C

20

30

D

25

35

  1. A) 20 days
  2. B) 10 days
  3. C) 15 days
  4. D) 5 days

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

62) A project consists of four consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in days) as shown in the table. Use Newbold's model to determine the aggregated buffer of one standard deviation for this project.

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

X

12

20

Y

20

25

Z

14

24

W

18

26

  1. A) 31 days
  2. B) 16 days
  3. C) 8 days
  4. D) 5 days

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

63) A project consists of four consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in days) as shown in the table. Use Goldratt's model to determine the aggregated buffer for this project.

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

A

10

20

B

15

25

C

20

30

D

25

35

  1. A) 20 days
  2. B) 10 days
  3. C) 15 days
  4. D) 5 days

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

64) A project consists of four consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in days) as shown in the table. Use Goldratt's model to determine the aggregated buffer for this project.

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

X

12

20

Y

20

25

Z

14

24

W

18

26

  1. A) 8.5 days
  2. B) 15.9 days
  3. C) 7.9 days
  4. D) 15.5 days

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

65) A project consists of six consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in days) as shown in the table. Use Newbold's method to determine the aggregated two sigma buffer for this project.

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

A

14

21

B

20

28

C

16

22

D

8

15

E

9

18

F

11

18

  1. A) 44 days
  2. B) 6 days
  3. C) 17 days
  4. D) 9 days

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

66) A project consists of six consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in weeks) as shown in the table. Use Newbold's method to determine the aggregated two sigma buffer for this project.

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

A

10

14

B

2

4

C

6

12

D

8

13.5

E

9

12

F

5

7.5

  1. A) 5 days
  2. B) 6 days
  3. C) 7 days
  4. D) 9 days

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

67) Subcontractor deliveries are difficult to schedule with the critical chain project methodology because:

  1. A) The project manager cannot force subcontractors to use this project management approach.
  2. B) The feeder buffers for a subcontractor are as much as 50% shorter than for an employee or internal team.
  3. C) Subcontractors routinely operate according to calendar delivery dates.
  4. D) The corporate culture of "no blame" does not naturally extend to subcontractors.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

68) The buffers supplied to non-critical paths in critical chain project management are called:

  1. A) Slack buffers.
  2. B) Drum buffers.
  3. C) Rope buffers.
  4. D) Feeder buffers.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

69) CCPM advocates performing all non-critical activities:

  1. A) As late as possible.
  2. B) As early as possible.
  3. C) Before starting the critical path.
  4. D) After completing the critical path.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

70) A project is represented by the activity durations (estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of the feeder buffer if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

20

D

B

16

B

A

20

E

C

8

C

A

10

F

D, E

8

  1. A) 9.0
  2. B) 7.5
  3. C) 4.5
  4. D) 6.0

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

71) A project is represented by the activity durations (estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of the project buffer if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

20

D

B

16

B

A

20

E

C

8

C

A

10

F

D, E

8

  1. A) 4.5
  2. B) 11.5
  3. C) 20.5
  4. D) 16

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

72) A project is represented by the activity durations (estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the overall duration of this project if it is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

20

D

B

16

B

A

20

E

C

8

C

A

10

F

D, E

8

  1. A) 48
  2. B) 32
  3. C) 64
  4. D) 43.5

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

73) A project is represented by the activity durations (estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of the feeder buffer for path NQT if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

M

--

8

R

--

12

N

--

8

S

P

14

P

M

12

T

R, Q

7

Q

N

10

V

S, T

11

  1. A) 9.0
  2. B) 2.25
  3. C) 4.5
  4. D) 6.75

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

74) A project is represented by the activity durations (estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of the project buffer if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

M

--

8

R

--

12

N

--

8

S

P

14

P

M

12

T

R, Q

7

Q

N

10

V

S, T

11

  1. A) 13.5
  2. B) 22.5
  3. C) 11.25
  4. D) 9.0

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

75) A project is represented by the activity durations (estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the overall duration of this project if it is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

M

--

8

R

--

12

N

--

8

S

P

14

P

M

12

T

R, Q

7

Q

N

10

V

S, T

11

  1. A) 22.5
  2. B) 24.75
  3. C) 27.0
  4. D) 33.75

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

76) A project is represented by the activity durations (in days, estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of a feeder buffer if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

18

E

C, D

13

B

--

16

F

C

9

C

A

22

G

E, F

15

D

B

14

 

 

 

  1. A) 3.5 days
  2. B) 2.5 days
  3. C) 1.5 days
  4. D) 0.5 days

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

77) A project is represented by the activity durations (in days, estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of a feeder buffer if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

18

E

C, D

13

B

--

16

F

C

9

C

A

22

G

E, F

15

D

B

14

 

 

 

  1. A) 4 days
  2. B) 3 days
  3. C) 2 days
  4. D) 1 days

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

78) A project is represented by the activity durations (in days, estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. How many feeder buffers are needed if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

18

E

C, D

13

B

--

16

F

C

9

C

A

22

G

E, F

15

D

B

14

 

 

 

  1. A) 0
  2. B) 1
  3. C) 2
  4. D) 3

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

79) A project is represented by the activity durations (in days, estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. How many project buffers are needed if this project is managed using critical chain methodology?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

18

E

C, D

13

B

--

16

F

C

9

C

A

22

G

E, F

15

D

B

14

 

 

 

  1. A) 0
  2. B) 1
  3. C) 2
  4. D) 3

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

80) A project is represented by the activity durations (in days, estimated at 90% likelihood of completion) and precedence requirements shown in the table. What is the length of the project buffer if this project is managed using critical chain methodology? Use the rule of thumb approach.

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Activity

Predecessor

Length

A

--

18

E

C, D

13

B

--

16

F

C

9

C

A

22

G

E, F

15

D

B

14

 

 

 

  1. A) 8.5 days
  2. B) 17 days
  3. C) 24.5 days
  4. D) 34 days

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

81) Which of the following statement is BEST?

  1. A) The critical chain requires that all resource leveling be done before the critical chain can be identified.
  2. B) The critical path usually jumps task dependency links.
  3. C) The critical chain relies on task dependency and is discovered after the fact, once the network is laid out.
  4. D) The critical chain is usually the same path as the critical path within an activity network.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

82) Use the project information in the table to resolve resource conflicts, identify the critical chain and critical path, and create feeder buffers. A feeder buffer should be placed immediately before:

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Resource

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Resource

A

--

11

P

D

C

13

P

B

A

7

M

E

--

12

X

C

B

8

W

F

E

14

M

  1. A) Activity B.
  2. B) Activity F.
  3. C) Activity C.
  4. D) Activity A.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

83) Use the project information in the table to resolve resource conflicts, identify the critical chain and critical path, and create feeder buffers. The critical chain does NOT pass through:

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Resource

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Resource

A

--

11

P

D

C

13

P

B

A

7

M

E

--

12

X

C

B

8

W

F

E

14

M

  1. A) Activity A.
  2. B) Activity F.
  3. C) Activity E.
  4. D) Activity D.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

84) Use the project information in the table to resolve resource conflicts, identify the critical chain and critical path, and create feeder buffers. The project buffer follows:

 

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Resource

Activity

Predecessor

Length

Resource

A

--

11

P

D

C

13

P

B

A

7

M

E

--

12

X

C

B

8

W

F

E

14

M

  1. A) Activity A.
  2. B) Activity F.
  3. C) Activity E.
  4. D) Activity D.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

85) In order to resolve a resource conflict, it is advisable to:

  1. A) Work backwards from the end of the project.
  2. B) Work forwards from the start of the project.
  3. C) Begin activities at their earliest possible start time.
  4. D) Complete activities at their earliest possible finish time.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  11.5 Critical Chain Solutions to Resource Conflicts

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

86) When choosing the most viable solution to resource conflict issues, the BEST option is the one that:

  1. A) Minimizes total network slack.
  2. B) Minimizes total network schedule disruption.
  3. C) Maximizes total network slack.
  4. D) Maximizes activity late start times.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  11.5 Critical Chain Solutions to Resource Conflicts

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

87) A feeder buffer is a buffer that is created for a non-critical path activity.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

88) An important element in critical chain scheduling is to change from a late-finish (procrastination) approach to an early-start approach.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

89) What are the implications for due dates and milestones when project slack is reapplied to the aggregated level?

Answer:  Milestones are not used in the CCPM activity network; the only firm commitment is to the project delivery date. Team members responsible for individual activities may meet or miss deadlines and are much more likely to miss them if their usual safety margin has been taken from them for aggregation at the project level. The project organization must recognize the increased potential for missed deadlines so that finger pointing does not occur when deadlines are missed. Lack of milestones makes it difficult to work with suppliers and subcontractors. Flexibility must be built into this system so they can deliver materials or be on site at a moment's notice or be bound by early start times if their functions lie on the critical path.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

90) Goldratt's solution to the variables involved in project scheduling involves the aggregation, or collectivizing, of all project risk in the form of uncertain duration estimates and completion times. Provide practical examples of how this aggregation works to the benefit of the overall project.

Answer:  One example the authors cite is the insurance industry — many policy holders pay premiums and only a few actually file claims. If the actuaries have done their due diligence, then the collected premiums exceed the claim payments. Other examples of aggregation being used to make life easier include other financial ventures such as investment, e.g. choosing a mutual fund rather than individual stocks, or choosing multiple financial instruments in which to invest. Aggregation is also used in sales and operations planning to set overall levels for labor and capital needed to carry out operations over the coming year. As demand is revealed for specific model types, the resources may be deployed in favor of popular models at the expense of less-demanded items.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

91) Picture yourself as a project manager intent on bringing CCPM to your organization that has historically used classic critical path project management. How would you convince your project team to develop 50% estimates for their project contributions rather than the 90% estimates they have used since they started with the company?

Answer:  This will require a culture change for all project participants. The idea is that the project must work in a "no blame" environment and that all parties agree that it is literally a coin flip as to whether their piece of the project meets a 50% estimate. Answers will vary as to how to bring about the culture change. Some students may cite a need to manage a couple of projects this way before team members accept the new mindset. Training exercises, such as the Deming Red Bead experiment, might be used as a lesson, albeit as a counterexample. The project manager may take the estimates provided by the project team as given, then run a parallel analysis using the CCPM approach, to show the team after the fact, how things would have worked out — or — hold his team to their estimates but report to his superiors a CCPM schedule.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

92) A project that consists of six consecutive tasks that have average duration and worst-case duration estimates (in days) as shown in the table. Use Newbold's method to determine the aggregated two sigma buffer for this project. How does the project buffer computed this way compare with the estimation for project buffer offered by Goldratt?

 

Activity

Average

Worst-Case

A

14

21

B

20

28

C

16

23

D

8

15

E

9

19

Answer:  The Newbold estimate is calculated as:

 

σ =  

 

σ =  

 

σ =  = 8.8176

 

2σ = 17.6352

 

The Goldratt rule of thumb of retaining 50% of the total buffer is (106-67)/2=19.5.

The Goldratt buffer is larger by 1.86 days, thus the Goldratt project is 86.5 days and the Newbold 2 sigma project is 84.63 days.

Diff: 3

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

93) Use these activity durations (that have been estimated at 90%) and precedence requirements to create two project schedules — a traditional schedule based on early start times and a critical chain schedule with buffers.

 

Activity

Time

Predecessor

A

8

 

B

15

 

C

19

B

D

12

C

E

3

C

F

16

A

G

12

F

H

16

E

R

7

D

J

16

G, H

K

12

R

L

8

J, K

Answer:  The traditional case is exhibited immediately below. The Gantt chart shows no buffers and the project finishes at time 77.

 

 

 

 

The first step in creating the critical chain schedule is to reduce activity durations to a respectable 50% likelihood from their bloated 90% likelihood estimates. The new activity durations are as follows:

 

Activity

Time

Predecessor

A

4

 

B

7.5

 

C

9.5

B

D

6

C

E

1.5

C

F

8

A

G

6

F

H

8

E

R

3.5

D

J

8

G, H

K

6

R

L

4

J, K

 

The critical chain schedule with buffers added appears below. Project duration is now calculated as 63.5 days.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

94) Create a 5-activity example and use it to explain the difference between the critical path method and critical chain project management.

Answer:  Examples will vary. The critical chain is usually not the same as the critical path within an activity network. The critical path depends on upon the task dependency; that is, the linkage of tasks with their predecessors. In this process, activity slack is discovered after the fact, once the network is laid out and the critical path identified, all other paths and activities may contain some level of slack. On the other hand, the critical chain usually jumps task dependency links. This is because the critical chain requires that all resource leveling be done before the critical chain can be identified, not afterwards as in the case of PERT and CPM networks.

 

In the example, activities C and D of project ABCDE both require the same drum resource. The critical path method focuses only on the longest route from start to finish, path ACE.

 

 

The critical chain recognizes that the drum resource must be the focus of our scheduling efforts, so attention is called to this resource. The critical chain is shown as a dotted line in this example.

 

Diff: 2

Section:  11.4 The Critical Chain Solution to Project Scheduling

LO:  11.5: Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project resource conflicts.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

95) A system-wide constraint is called a:

  1. A) Rope.
  2. B) Resource.
  3. C) Drum.
  4. D) Chain.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

96) Drum buffers are:

  1. A) A safety margin separating different projects scheduled to use the same resource.
  2. B) Extra safety that is applied to a project immediately after the use of the constrained resource.
  3. C) A constraint separating different projects that requires a common buffer.
  4. D) Extra safety that is applied to a project immediately before the use of the constrained resource.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

97) A resource constraint can be exploited using CCPM methodology by:

  1. A) Determining the priority among projects for access to the drum.
  2. B) Scheduling each project to start based on the drum schedule.
  3. C) Designating the critical chain as the chain from the first use of the constraining resource to the end of the project.
  4. D) Resolving any conflicts if the creation of the capacity constraint buffers adversely affects the drum schedule.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

98) The term capacity constraint buffer refers to a safety margin separating different tasks scheduled to use the same resource.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

99) The legal department is needed to review all contracts a project organization enters. The legal department is continually swamped with work and all other departments find themselves waiting on legal before they can begin their work. Legal is the drum for this organization.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

100) Define and describe the function and interrelationship of a drum, drum buffer, and a capacity constraint buffer in CCPM.

Answer:  A drum is a system-wide constraint that sets the beat, effectively limiting the entire system or collection of projects. Drum buffers are extra safety that is applied to a project immediately before the use of the constrained resource to ensure that the resource will not be starved for work. A capacity constraint buffer is a safety margin separating different projects scheduled to use the same resource.

 

In the context of a single project the drum must be protected by an extra safety margin, the drum buffer. This extra protection is provided so the drum will not fall idle. As an organization adds more projects to its portfolio, the drum is protected by a capacity constraint buffer that separates the use of the drum from one project to the next.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

101) What are the formal steps to apply CCPM to multiple project portfolios?

Answer:  The formal steps necessary to apply CCPM to multiple project portfolios include:

Identify the company resource constraint or the drum, the driving force behind multiple project schedules.

Exploit the resource constraint by preparing a critical chain schedule for each project independently, determining the priority among projects for access to the drum, and creating the multi-project drum schedule.

Subordinate the individual project schedules by scheduling each project to start based on the drum schedule, designating the critical chain, inserting capacity constraint buffers where appropriate, resolving any conflicts if the CCBs adversely affect the drum schedule, and inserting drum buffers to ensure that the constraint resource will not be starved for work.

Elevate the capacity constrained resource.

Iterate through this process starting with the second step.

Diff: 2

Section:  11.6 Critical Chain Project Portfolio Management

LO:  11.6: Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

 

 

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