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Project Management 2016 - Pinto - Quiz - Chapter 12

MBA Project Management

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 2016

Case study guides and online resources (2016)

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto

 

 

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4e (Pinto)

Chapter 12   Resource Management

 

1) A project that must be finished by December 31st is:

  1. A) Time-constrained.
  2. B) Resource-constrained.
  3. C) Mix-constrained.
  4. D) Capacity-constrained.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

2) The One Shovel Construction Company is hired by the City of Edmond to lay sewer pipe from the east end of town to the west end of town using their single shovel to dig the trench. While the crew would like to begin at both ends simultaneously and have a dramatic ceremony when both ends meet, they find themselves with a bit of a:

  1. A) Time constraint.
  2. B) Resource constraint.
  3. C) Mixed constraint.
  4. D) Partial network.

 

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

3) The assistant professor frantically prepared his tenure and promotion dossier for the personnel committee. The deadline loomed and he had several other things to accomplish – deadlines for papers and key correspondence that demanded replies. By his reckoning, he probably didn't have enough toner, paper, or computing time available to accomplish all that he had left to do. His project is unfortunately:

  1. A) Time constrained.
  2. B) Resource constrained.
  3. C) Mix-constrained.
  4. D) Personally constrained.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

4) The BEST method for establishing the existence of resource conflicts across project activities uses:

  1. A) Gantt charts.
  2. B) Network diagrams.
  3. C) Pareto diagrams.
  4. D) Resource loading charts.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

5) In a resource constrained project, the work must be finished by a certain time, or date, as efficiently as possible.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

6) There is, for almost all projects, usually a dominant constraint that serves as the final arbiter of project decisions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

7) The best method for establishing the existence of resource conflicts across project activities uses resource-loading charts.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

8) What are the three types of constraints that projects face; provide examples and suggest ways to address these constraints?

Answer:  The three main types of constraints that a project manager faces are time constraints, resource constraints, and mixed constraints. Examples of each will vary.

 

In the time-constrained project, the work must be finished by a certain time, or date, as efficiently as possible. In the resource-constrained project, the work must not exceed some predetermined level of resource use within the organization. While the project is to be completed as rapidly as possible, speed is not the ultimate goal. The mixed-constraint project is primarily resource constrained but may contain some activities or work package elements that are time constrained to a greater degree.

 

Time constraints can be addressed by increasing the percentage of worked time until the due date by working overtime or on weekends and holidays. Increasing the labor pool through dedicated personnel or subcontractors or automating processes, buying more powerful or efficient equipment, or improving work methods can all help speed up a project. Resource constraints may be addressed by leveling a project or extending the time available. Mixed constraints can be addressed by some combination of these techniques.

Diff: 2

Section:  12.1 The Basics of Resource Constraints

LO:  12.1: Recognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

9) The amounts of individual resources that a schedule requires during specific time periods is referred to as the resource's:

  1. A) Loading.
  2. B) Capacity.
  3. C) Constraint.
  4. D) Drag.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

10) Placing resources on a detailed schedule of tasks is referred to as:

  1. A) Placing.
  2. B) Rectifying.
  3. C) Loading.
  4. D) Dragging.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

11) A resource loading form is also known as a(n):

  1. A) Load schedule.
  2. B) Resource usage calendar.
  3. C) Activity resource schedule.
  4. D) Network resource profile.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

12) What information is usually provided on a resource-usage calendar?

  1. A) The tasks, the precedence requirements, and the money per unit time needed to reduce them.
  2. B) The personnel, their hourly wage or salary, and the number of hours per week they are available.
  3. C) The personnel, their responsibility for certain tasks, and the number of hours per week they are available.
  4. D) The tasks, the people and equipment available, and the ownership and reporting relationships among them.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

13) A resource loading form can be generated once you have developed:

  1. A) The activity network and productivity profile.
  2. B) The work breakdown structure and the project budget.
  3. C) The activity network and the work breakdown structure.
  4. D) The project budget and the productivity profile.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

14) Which of the following would NOT typically be displayed in a resource loading table?

  1. A) The project team members
  2. B) The tasks the project team members have been assigned
  3. C) The time the activities are expected to take
  4. D) The expenses allocated to the activities

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

15) In addition to identifying overallocation of people, a resource usage table can also be used to identify overallocation of:

  1. A) Tasks.
  2. B) Managers.
  3. C) Money.
  4. D) Resources.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

16) Use the resource loading table to determine which of the Yaki sisters is over-allocated.

 

Resource

Work

Details

23-Oct

30-Oct

 

Suki

64 hrs

Work

32h

32h

 

A

16 hrs

Work

16h

 

 

C

24 hrs

Work

16h

8h

 

D

24 hrs

Work

 

24h

 

Terri

40 hrs

Work

16h

16h

8h

B

24 hrs

Work

16h

8h

 

E

16 hrs

Work

 

8h

8h

  1. A) Suki
  2. B) Terri
  3. C) both
  4. D) Can't be determined from the information provided.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

17) A resource loading chart displays:

  1. A) The amount of time needed as a function of resource limits.
  2. B) The amount of resources required as a function of time.
  3. C) The amount of time needed as a function of money.
  4. D) The amount of resources needed as a function of money.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

18) The independent axis of a resource loading chart is in units of:

  1. A) Nothing — it is simply relative magnitude.
  2. B) Resources.
  3. C) Time.
  4. D) Workers/people.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

19) Splitting activities refers to:

  1. A) Assigning the work to two or more workers.
  2. B) Assigning the work to two or more days.
  3. C) Starting an activity, interrupting it to use a resource elsewhere, and then returning to work on the activity.
  4. D) Breaking each non-critical activity into two or more components and subdividing the resources they use by a similar divisor.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

20) In general, when constructing a resource loading chart, one should avoid:

  1. A) Splitting the activities.
  2. B) Obeying the pre-established precedence requirements for the activities.
  3. C) Identifying the slack for each activity.
  4. D) Changing the duration of the activities.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

21) It's resource leveling time at Satriale's Pork Store and management is pondering four possibilities for task splitting. Which of these activities would be the worst candidate for splitting?

  1. A) Silvio's task, which requires several workers
  2. B) Paulie's task, which is the most expensive
  3. C) Richie's task, which has high start up costs
  4. D) Ralph's task, which is the least expensiv

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

 

22) Use this resource load chart to determine which activity uses the fewest resources.

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

23) Use this resource load chart to determine which activity uses the greatest number of resources.

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

24) Use this resource load chart to determine which activity is the longest in duration.

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

25) The project represented by this resource load chart has a maximum limit of 6 units of resource activity in any day. The first activities that are strong candidates for shifting are:

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activities B and C
  3. C) Activities D and E
  4. D) Activity E and F

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

26) The project represented by this resource load chart has a maximum limit of 6 units of resource activity in any day. Which activity could be split to help the project team finish on time and meet the resource cap?

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activities B and C
  3. C) Activities D and E
  4. D) Activity E and F

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

27) All that is needed to create a resource loading calendar is the work breakdown structure and the activity network.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

28) The resource usage table tells us the project team members, their assigned tasks, and the time each task is expected to take.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

29) Resource loading charts are used to display the amount of resources required as a function of time on a graph.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

30) If an activity can be split, only the functional portion of the original activity needs to be accomplished for the project to be fully completed.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

31) Use this activity precedence table to create a resource loading profile. Activity lengths are given in days and an 8-hour day is assumed.

 

Activity

Time

Predecessor

A

2

 

B

3

A

C

6

B

D

5

A

E

3

C

F

2

D

G

2

E,F

Answer:  The loading chart is as follows:

 

Task

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

A

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

 

8

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

 

 

 

 

 

8

8

8

8

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

8

8

8

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

8

8

 

 

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

8

Total

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

 

The loading profile shows the number of hours required for each of the 14 days of the project.

 

Diff: 2

Section:  12.2 Resource Loading

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

32) Create a resource loading chart using early start times for the project described by this table.

 

Activity

Time

Predecessor

Task

A

14

--

4

B

2

--

5

C

4

A

5

D

9

B

4

E

8

C

5

F

2

C

3

G

3

D

2

H

5

F, G

4

K

1

E

3

L

13

H, K

4

Answer:  The early start times appear in this table.

 

Activity

Time

Early Start

Resources

Slack

A

14

0

4

0

B

2

0

5

6

C

4

14

5

0

D

9

2

4

6

E

8

18

5

0

F

2

18

3

2

G

3

11

2

6

H

5

20

4

2

K

1

26

3

0

L

13

27

4

0

 

 

Diff: 3

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

33) Create a resource loading chart for the project described by this network.

 

 

Answer:  Activities R and W gerrymander a bit and are indicated by shaded polygons.

 

Diff: 3

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

34) Use this resource loading chart and the information in the table to fill in the rest of the table as completely as possible. All activities in the chart are shown with early start times.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessors

Early Start

Early Finish

Resources

Slack

A

 

--

 

 

 

 

B

9

A

 

 

 

 

C

5

A

 

 

 

 

D

 

B

 

 

 

 

E

11

D

 

 

 

 

F

 

C, E

 

 

 

 

G

9

E

 

 

 

 

H

8

F, G

 

 

 

 

Answer:  Regarding durations: activity A lines up neatly with major tick marks. Activities B and D must total 15 in length and activities E, F, and G must total 30. Resource use is open to some interpretation. Activities A, B, C, and F all line up with major tick marks; the remainder of the activities can be guesstimated.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessors

Early Start

Early Finish

Resources

Slack

A

15

--

0

15

10

0

B

9

A

15

24

5

0

C

5

A

15

20

10

21

D

6

B

24

30

12

0

E

11

D

30

41

6

0

F

11

C, E

41

52

5

0

G

9

E

41

50

4

2

H

8

F, G

52

60

2.5

0

Diff: 2

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.2: Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource overallocation situations.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

35) The process that addresses the complex challenges of project constraints is known as:

  1. A) TOC.
  2. B) Resource leveling.
  3. C) Constraint scheduling.
  4. D) Resource scheduling.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

36) Consider the project that is neatly summarized in this table. What are the top two priority activities when using the smallest duration leveling heuristic?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessors

Workers Required

A

2

--

3

B

4

A

4

C

6

A

2

D

7

B

5

E

9

C, D, E

2

  1. A) B and C
  2. B) A and B
  3. C) C and E
  4. D) A and E

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

37) Consider the project that is neatly summarized in this table. What are the top priority activity when using the most successors leveling heuristic?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessors

Workers Required

A

8

--

3

B

2

--

4

C

6

A

2

D

7

B

5

E

9

C, D

2

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

38) Consider the project that is neatly summarized in this table. What are the lowest priority activities when using the smallest amount of slack leveling heuristic?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessors

Workers Required

A

8

--

3

B

2

--

4

C

6

A

2

D

7

B

5

E

9

C, D

2

  1. A) A and B
  2. B) C and E
  3. C) A and D
  4. D) B and D

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

39) Consider the project that is neatly summarized in this table. What are the highest priority activities when using the most resources required leveling heuristic?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessors

Workers Required

A

8

--

3

B

2

--

4

C

6

A

5

D

7

B

6

E

9

C, D

2

  1. A) E and B
  2. B) C and E
  3. C) C and D
  4. D) B and D

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

40) Which of these statements about resource management is BEST?

  1. A) A mathematically optimal solution is almost always attainable and should be pursued.
  2. B) The project manager should level resources as to maximize fluctuations from time period to time period.
  3. C) A common approach to analyzing resource-leveling problems is to apply heuristics.
  4. D) Resource management is usually a univariate, combinatorial problem.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

41) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A, B, C, and D. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the resource based on the activity with the smallest amount of slack?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

WBS ID

W

4

--

12

A

3

W

16

B

4

W

15

C

5

W

13

D

6

W

14

E

1

B

17

Z

7

A, E, C, D

18

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

42) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A, B, C, and D. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the resource based on the activity with the shortest duration?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

WBS ID

W

4

--

12

A

3

W

16

B

4

W

15

C

5

W

13

D

6

W

14

E

1

B

17

Z

7

A, E, C, D

18

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

43) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A, B, C, and D. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the resource based on the activity with the greatest number of successor tasks?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

WBS ID

W

4

--

12

A

3

W

16

B

4

W

15

C

5

W

13

D

6

W

14

E

1

B

17

Z

7

A, E, C, D

18

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

44) The project described in the table uses the same resource for activities A, B, C, and D. Which activity gets first use of this resource if we assign the resource based on the activity with the lowest activity identification number?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

WBS ID

W

4

--

12

A

3

W

16

B

4

W

15

C

5

W

13

D

6

W

14

E

1

B

17

Z

7

A, E, C, D

18

  1. A) Activity A
  2. B) Activity B
  3. C) Activity C
  4. D) Activity D

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

45) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources required for activity D if a worker is expected to work half-time (four hours per day) on this project.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) 6 hours
  2. B) 40 hours
  3. C) 24 hours
  4. D) 48 hours

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

46) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources required for this project if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) 36 hours
  2. B) 40 hours
  3. C) 64 hours
  4. D) 128 hours

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

47) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources required for this project on day 2 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) 4 hours
  2. B) 2 hours
  3. C) 8 hours
  4. D) 6 hours

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

48) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources required for this project during week 1 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project. Assume that the project work is conducted on a 5-day-per-week basis.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) 40 hours
  2. B) 20 hours
  3. C) 28 hours
  4. D) 36 hours

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

49) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources required for this project during week 2 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project. Assume that the project work is conducted on a 5-day-per-week basis.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) 30 hours
  2. B) 20 hours
  3. C) 40 hours
  4. D) 36 hours

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

50) Use the project described in the table to determine the total resources required for this project on day 10 if a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project. Assume that the project work is conducted on a 5-day-per-week basis.

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) 5 hours
  2. B) 10 hours
  3. C) 4 hours
  4. D) 8 hours

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

51) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. Which week has the lowest resource usage?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) Week 6
  2. B) Week 2
  3. C) Week 4
  4. D) Week 3

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

52) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. Which week has the highest resource usage?

 

Activity

Duration

Predecessor

A

5 days

--

B

4 days

A

C

5 days

A

D

6 days

B

E

6 days

C, D

F

6 days

E

  1. A) Week 6
  2. B) Week 2
  3. C) Week 4
  4. D) Week 3

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

53) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. Which week has the highest resource usage?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Hours per Day

Time (Days)

A

--

4

6

B

A

4

11

C

A

5

5

D

B

4

6

E

B

4

6

F

B

6

3

G

C, D

8

11

H

E, F

8

8

J

G, H

3

10

K

J

6

4

  1. A) Week 4
  2. B) Week 5
  3. C) Week 6
  4. D) Week 7

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

54) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. Which week has the lowest resource usage?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Hours per Day

Time (Days)

A

--

4

6

B

A

4

11

C

A

5

5

D

B

4

6

E

B

4

6

F

B

6

3

G

C, D

8

11

H

E, F

8

8

J

G, H

3

10

K

J

6

4

  1. A) Week 3
  2. B) Week 2
  3. C) Week 9
  4. D) Week 8

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

55) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. What is the total resource requirement for the project?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Hours per Day

Time (Days)

A

--

4

6

B

A

4

11

C

A

5

5

D

B

4

6

E

B

4

6

F

B

6

3

G

C, D

8

11

H

E, F

8

8

J

G, H

3

10

K

J

6

4

  1. A) 365 hours
  2. B) 335 hours
  3. C) 320 hours
  4. D) 310 hours

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

56) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. What is the total resource requirement for activity G?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Hours per Day

Time (Days)

A

--

4

6

B

A

4

11

C

A

5

5

D

B

4

6

E

B

4

6

F

B

6

3

G

C, D

8

11

H

E, F

8

8

J

G, H

3

10

K

J

6

4

  1. A) 22 hours
  2. B) 88 hours
  3. C) 44 hours
  4. D) 132 hours

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

57) A project consisting of six activities is shown in the table. If the project manager decides to operate on a late start schedule, which of these days has the highest resource requirements?

 

Activity

Duration (days)

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

  1. A) Day 21
  2. B) Day 18
  3. C) Day 24
  4. D) Day 15

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

58) A project consisting of six activities is shown in the table. If the project manager decides to operate on a late start schedule, which of these days has the lowest resource requirements?

 

Activity

Duration (days)

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

  1. A) Day 21
  2. B) Day 18
  3. C) Day 24
  4. D) Day 15

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

59) A project consisting of six activities is shown in the table. If the project manager decides to operate on an early start schedule, which of these days has the lowest resource requirements?

 

Activity

Duration (days)

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

  1. A) Day 15
  2. B) Day 19
  3. C) Day 24
  4. D) Day 29

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

60) A project consisting of six activities is shown in the table. If the project manager decides to operate on an early start schedule, which of these days has the highest resource requirements?

 

Activity

Duration (days)

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

  1. A) Day 5
  2. B) Day 10
  3. C) Day 15
  4. D) Day 20

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

61) The idea behind resource leveling is to avoid huge swings in utilization of labor and equipment.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

62) The first step in the resource leveling process is to create the resource loading table.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

63) Because resource management is typically a multivariate, combinatorial problem (i.e., one that is characterized by multiple solutions involving literally dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of activity variables) truly correct answers are not possible.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

64) A resource loading table is created through identifying the project activities and the resources required for completion and applying this information to the project schedule baseline.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

65) If resources have been over-allocated, the loading table must be reconfigured to eliminate resource contention points. The project manager can focus solely on the original point of contention since the activities in a project are separate entities.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

66) What are any four heuristics for prioritizing resource allocation to activities? Why would a project manager choose one above another?

Answer:  The decision rules for prioritizing resource allocation discussed in the text are:

activities with the smallest amount of slack,

activities with the smallest duration,

activities with the lowest identification number,

activities with the most successor tasks,

activities requiring the most resources.

These decision rules can be applied more easily than searching for an optimal or near optimal solution given the complexity of a typical resource management problem. The first rule, prioritizing activities with the smallest slack has some support for resulting in the smallest overall schedule slippage. The fourth rule allows for completing the greatest number of tasks once the activity in question has been completed. There may be any number of individual circumstances why one rule is more appealing than another.

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

67) A project consists of six activities (all times are given in days). Provide the range of days during which resource usage is highest and the range of days during which resource usage is lowest using a late start schedule.

 

Activity

Activity time

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

Answer:  Highest resource usage occurs during days 21 and 22 with activities N and P requiring a combined 32 units of resources. The lowest usage of 8 resource units occurs on days 1 and 2 for activity M and days 13 through 16 with activity L.

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

68) A project consists of six activities (all times are given in days). Provide the range of days during which resource usage is highest and the range of days during which resource usage is lowest using an early start schedule.

 

Activity

Activity time

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

Answer:  Highest resource usage occurs during days 13 through 18 with activities L and N requiring a combined 28 units of resources. The lowest usage of 8 resource units occurs on days 11 and 12 for activity M.

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

69) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all four workers employed by this organization are generalists. What schedule is attainable if the number of workers is not an issue? What is the fastest the project can be completed while constrained by the four worker limitation?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

Answer:  With no worker constraint, the project can be completed in 56 days by adhering to an early start schedule.

 

Activity

Duration

Early Start

Early Finish

Late Start

Late Finish

A

10

0

10

0

10

B

4

0

4

7

11

C

7

10

17

12

19

D

4

10

14

10

14

E

8

4

12

11

19

F

9

17

26

19

28

G

13

14

27

14

27

H

14

27

41

27

41

J

13

26

39

28

41

K

10

41

51

41

51

L

5

51

56

51

56

 

 

Unfortunately, this schedule fails the four worker constraint on days 11 & 12 with the need for six workers and again on days 28-39 when five workers are needed. Adjusting for the constraint will require shifting non-critical activities back. Activity C delays starting until day 13 rather than the ES of 11. Activity F starts on day 20 instead of its ES of day 18. This results in Activity H delaying by one day and starting on day 29, otherwise day 28 is overscheduled by one worker. Activity J begins on day 43 and concludes on day 55, which delays K to starting on day 56 since H and J are both predecessors. L begins on day 66 and concludes on day 70. The four worker constraint delays the project completion by 14 days, from 56 days of project work to a full 70 days of work.

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

70) This resource loading table shows the requirements for a five-task project that has a 42-day duration. The table is designed to reflect an early start schedule. Activity D has only one predecessor and activities C and E have two each. What differences exist between this table and the late start resource table?

 

Answer:  The late start table is below. The AC path has slack, so differences arise from the starting times for these activities. Activity A has almost as much slack (8) as its duration (10) as is the case for activity C (duration of 8 and slack of 6). Activity A needs 10 units of resources and C needs 15 units per period, so these resources can be shifted almost the entire duration of either (or both) activities.

 

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.3: Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

71) Use the information in the table and assume that a worker is expected to devote half-time (four hours per day) to this project with work taking place on a 5-day-per-week basis. If the project manager is told that the total number of hours per week cannot exceed 48, what is the first week that some resource leveling must occur?

 

Activity

Predecessor

Hours per Day

Time (Days)

A

--

4

6

B

A

4

11

C

A

5

5

D

B

4

6

E

B

4

6

F

B

6

3

G

C, D

8

11

H

E, F

8

8

J

G, H

3

10

K

J

6

4

  1. A) Week 2
  2. B) Week 6
  3. C) Week 4
  4. D) Week 5

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

72) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all six workers employed by this organization are generalists and are able to work on any of the tasks. What is the fastest the project can be completed?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

  1. A) 54 days
  2. B) 56 days
  3. C) 58 days
  4. D) 60 days

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

73) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all four workers employed by this organization are generalists and are able to work on any of the tasks. What is the fastest the project can be completed while constrained by the four worker limitation?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

  1. A) 68 days
  2. B) 70 days
  3. C) 66 days
  4. D) 72 days

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

74) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all four workers employed by this organization are generalists and are able to work on any of the tasks. What is the first day where this project exceeds the four worker maximum?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

  1. A) Day 10
  2. B) Day 11
  3. C) Day 12
  4. D) Day 13

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

75) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all four workers employed by this organization are generalists and are able to work on any of the tasks. What day does activity C start under a leveled project with the four worker limitation?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

  1. A) Day 13
  2. B) Day 15
  3. C) Day 17
  4. D) Day 19

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

76) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all four workers employed by this organization are generalists and are able to work on any of the tasks. What day does activity H start under a leveled project with the four worker limitation?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

  1. A) Day 27
  2. B) Day 28
  3. C) Day 29
  4. D) Day 30

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

77) A project consists of eleven activities (all times are given in days) and has worker requirements as indicated in the table. Assume that all four workers employed by this organization are generalists and are able to work on any of the tasks. What day does activity K start under a leveled project with the four worker limitation?

 

Activity

Activity time

Workers Needed

Predecessor

A

10

1

 

B

4

2

 

C

7

3

A

D

4

1

A

E

8

2

B

F

9

3

C,E

G

13

1

D

H

14

2

E,G

J

13

3

F

K

10

1

H, J

L

5

2

K

  1. A) Day 56
  2. B) Day 57
  3. C) Day 58
  4. D) Day 59

Answer:  A

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

78) A project consisting of six activities is represented in the resource loading table shown below. There is a limit of 12 hours' time spent on this project for any given day. What activities are involved in the first resource problem in this schedule?

 

Act.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

A

4

4

4

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

 

 

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

 

 

 

 

5

5

5

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

6

6

 

 

 

  1. A) Activities A, B, and C
  2. B) Activities B, C, and D
  3. C) Activities C, D, and E
  4. D) Activities D, E, and F

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

79) A project consisting of six activities is represented in the resource loading table shown below. There is a limit of 12 hours' time spent on this project for any given day. Which activity should be left alone if at all possible in the adjustment process among the candidates?

 

Act.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

A

4

4

4

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

 

 

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

 

 

 

 

5

5

5

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4

4

4

4

4

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

6

6

 

 

 

  1. A) Activity B
  2. B) Activity C
  3. C) Activity F
  4. D) Activity E

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

80) A project consisting of six activities is shown in the table. The project manager must achieve the lowest possible maximum resource requirement while adhering to a 34-day deadline. The lowest possible peak resource demand occurs:

 

Activity

Duration (days)

Activity Cost

Predecessor

K

10

140

 

L

8

64

K, M

M

12

96

 

N

6

120

M

P

14

168

L

Q

12

144

N

  1. A) On days 19 through 20 for an early start schedule.
  2. B) On days 17 through 20 for a late start schedule.
  3. C) On days 13 through 18 for an early start schedule.
  4. D) On days 21 through 22 for a late start schedule.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

81) Describe resource leveling; its objectives and the basic five-step technique to perform it.

Answer:  Resource leveling is the process that addresses the complex challenges of project constraints. With resource leveling we are required to develop procedures that minimize the effects of resource demands across the project's life cycle. Resource leveling has two objectives: to determine the resource requirements so that they will be available at the right time, and to allow each activity to be scheduled with the smoothest possible transition across usage levels.

The basic steps necessary to produce a resource-leveled project schedule include the following:

Create a project activity network diagram.

From this diagram, create a table showing the resources required for each activity, the activity durations, and total float available.

Develop a time-phased resource loading table that shows the resources required to complete each activity, the activity early starts, and late finish times.

Identify any resource conflicts and begin to smooth the loading table using one or more of the heuristics for prioritizing resource assignment across activities.

Repeat the fourth step as often as necessary to eliminate the source of resource conflicts.

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

82) Create a resource loading table and perform resource leveling on the project composed of the activities in this table. Activities listed in the table are measured in the number of eight-hour days. The maximum amount of time used per day is 16 hours.

 

Activity

Time

Predecessor

A

6

--

B

1

--

C

2

A, B

D

4

--

E

1

C, D

F

1

E

G

6

E

H

4

F

J

4

F

K

3

G, H

L

5

J, K

M

3

L

Answer:  The initial resource loading table with early starts is shown below:

 

 

 

Day 1 is problematic, but activities B and D both have plenty of slack. Activity B has a late start of 5 and D has a late start of 4. Starting D on Day 2 changes the schedule the least and keeps the project under 16 hours per day until Day 11. Activities G, H, and J combine for 24 hours on Days 11-14; G has no slack, H has 1 day slack, and J has 4 days slack. Move J back to a Day 15 start time to resolve this constraint and the new loading table appears below:

 

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

83) Sam and Dave have identified 9 activities that are required to complete their next project and developed a snazzy resource loading table. Since they each work 8 hours a day, they need your help to perform resource leveling on their project such that they can finish it by the close of business on Day 24. Activity float times are indicated by bracketed cells in the table. Times indicated in the table are in hours; the top row shows the day number of the project. The total hours for each day are shown in the bottom row of the table and cannot exceed 16 hours. The total resource time in any day cannot exceed 16 hours.

 

Answer:  Pushing activities X, T, and R back to their late start times accomplishes the objective of finishing on time and at less than 16 hours of labor each day.

 

Diff: 3

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

84) What resources have been initially over-allocated in the project described by the table? Assume that all activities will begin at their early start times and require the number of hours per day indicated in the table. Each worker is available for 8 hours per day. Do not level this project.

 

Activity

Activity Length

Predecessor

Resource

Resource Hours Per Day

A

9

--

Lisa

1

B

8

--

Nathan

7

C

13

A

Jake

6

D

11

B

Nathan

6

E

6

B

Jake

4

F

9

C

Lisa

4

G

9

D

Jake

5

H

9

E

Lisa

6

M

9

F, G

Nathan

7

J

4

F, H

Lisa

2

K

1

M, J

Nathan

6

L

11

K

Jake

7

 

 

Answer:  Resource loadings are summarized in the table. Over-allocations occur with Lisa on day 23; Jake on days 10-14 and again on days 20-22.

 

Worker

Days

Loading

Lisa

1-9

10-14

15-22

23

24-31

32-35

36-52

1

0

6

10

4

2

0

Nathan

1-8

9-19

20-31

32-40

41

42-52

7

6

0

7

6

0

Jake

1-8

9

10-14

15-19

20-22

23-28

29-41

42-52

0

4

10

6

11

5

0

7

Diff: 2

Section:  12.3 Resource Leveling

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

85) Create a resource loading chart for the project described by this table and then adjust activities by splitting them or delaying them in order to meet the resource constraints of 8 hours of work per day. Show your new resource loading chart, indicating which activities have been adjusted. What is the change in project completion dates?

 

Activity

Time

Predecessor

Resource Time/Day

Resource

G

5

--

5

1

F

2

--

3

1, 2

D

4

G

2

2

R

3

F

5

3

W

5

D

4

1, 3

M

4

R

7

3

K

4

M, W

3

2, 3

Z

2

K

6

2

Answer:  The initial resource loading chart is below; project completion time is 20 days but the combination of activities R and G and activities M and D exceed the 8-hour-per-day threshold.

 

 

Activities R and M both have 5 days of slack; if activity R is delayed until day 5, it will begin then and be completed on day 8. M must be delayed until D is completed, which will then delay the project's completion by 4 days.

 

Diff: 3

Section:  12.4 Resource Loading Charts

LO:  12.4: Follow the steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

86) The amount of work waiting to be completed but delayed due to unavailable resources is known as:

  1. A) Resource utilization.
  2. B) In-process inventory.
  3. C) Resource underutilization.
  4. D) Efficiency.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

87) Excessive in-process inventory is often caused by:

  1. A) Schedule slippage.
  2. B) Over-ordering supplies.
  3. C) Lack of available resources.
  4. D) Too much labor.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

88) Consider the portfolio of projects described in the table. The resource requirements are in numbers of labor hours. The First in Line rule would begin work with project:

 

Project

Date Rec'd

Date Due

Resource 1

Resource 2

Resource 3

A

Apr 2006

Oct 2006

125

200

100

B

Feb 2006

Sep 2006

200

350

400

C

Mar 2006

Aug 2006

100

650

200

D

Jan 2006

Nov 2006

150

250

350

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) C.
  4. D) D.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

89) Consider the portfolio of projects described in the table. The resource requirements are in numbers of labor hours. The Greatest Resource Demand rule would begin work with project:

 

Project

Date Rec'd

Date Due

Resource 1

Resource 2

Resource 3

A

Apr 2006

Oct 2006

200

350

400

B

Feb 2006

Sep 2006

125

200

100

C

Mar 2006

Aug 2006

100

650

200

D

Jan 2006

Nov 2006

150

250

350

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) C.
  4. D) D.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

 

90) Consider the portfolio of projects described in the table. The resource requirements are in numbers of labor hours. The Greatest Resource Utilization rule would begin work with project:

 

Project

Date Rec'd

Date Due

Resource 1

Resource 2

Resource 3

A

Apr 2006

Oct 2006

200

0

400

B

Feb 2006

Sep 2006

150

200

170

C

Mar 2006

Aug 2006

0

250

200

D

Jan 2006

Nov 2006

150

100

0

  1. A) A.
  2. B) B.
  3. C) C.
  4. D) D.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

 

91) The Minimum Late Finish Time rule stipulates that:

  1. A) The earliest late finishers are scheduled last.
  2. B) The latest early finishers are scheduled first.
  3. C) The earliest late finishers are scheduled first.
  4. D) The latest late finishers are scheduled first.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

92) Mathematical programming is sometimes used to generate optimal solutions to resource constrained problems in a multi-project setting but suffers from:

  1. A) An inability to model project and activity due dates.
  2. B) Resource substitution.
  3. C) Resource constraints.
  4. D) Problem complexity.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

93) The problem of resource underutilization that a project manager faces when managing a single project disappears in the multi-project environment.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

94) In-process inventory represents the amount of work waiting to be completed but delayed due to unavailable resources.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Concept

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

95) What are the trade-offs among schedule slippage, resource utilization, and in-process inventory for a project manager in a multi-project environment?

Answer:  Schedule slippage is a negative consequence on time performance for a project. Resource utilization is the degree to which available resources are deployed and in-process inventory represents the amount of work waiting to be completed but delayed due to unavailable resources. Resource utilization can be increased by deploying all available resources as fully as possible.

Diff: 1

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

96) A project is composed of the seven activities shown in the table where all activities are in weeks.

 

Activity

Activity time

Resource Usage

Predecessor

J

10

90

 

F

16

144

I

P

18

180

J, F

I

8

128

 

N

14

196

I

T

10

220

P, N

O

8

80

P, N

 

The resource profile for an early start schedule is plotted below.

 

 

Suppose that the line representing resource usage is a function of time and is described by the equation Usage=f(t). What is the definite integral of this function over the domain 0 to 52? In other words, find the solution to:  for this project.

Answer:  Mercifully, there's nothing to integrate here. The area under the curve is the total usage of resources for the project, which is the sum of that column in the table. The total is 1038.

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

97) What are any three common heuristics that can be used to schedule resources in a multi-project environment? Comment on their advantages and disadvantages.

Answer:  The heuristics discussed in the text are first in line, greatest resource demand, greatest resource utilization, minimum late finish time, and mathematical programming.

The first in line heuristic allocates resources based upon which project enters the queue first. This is the easiest heuristic to follow, but it can defy common sense in favor of ease of use.

The greatest resource demand decision rule determines which projects in the company's portfolio will pose the greatest demand on available resources; these projects are allocated resources first and then other projects are scheduled. The assumption being made is that projects that are more consumptive of resources are likely sources of bottlenecks, so these activities should be accommodated first and the rest of the system subordinated to the bottlenecks' needs. This rule and the greatest resource utilization rule may result in dedicating too many resources to a project that simply isn't profitable or has poor margins when compared with projects that may represent low hanging fruit.

Greatest resource utilization is a slight variation on the greatest resource demand heuristic. Projects with high levels of resource utilization are scheduled first, resulting in good performance on the utilization performance measure. If other projects are added to the company portfolio while the first project is still viable, the utilization of resources may remain high when the new projects are considered with the existing projects.

The minimum late finish time prioritizes projects with minimal slack, in effect keeping them as close as possible to on schedule. Projects with more slack can wait a while for the resources without becoming late. The danger is that resource starvation of projects with seemingly abundant slack may result in every project in the portfolio being delivered late.

Mathematical programming can generate optimal decisions to resource constrained problems. While solutions are optimal, the problem set up and solution can be extraordinarily complex.

Diff: 1

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

98) Rank the three key parameters, schedule slippage, resource utilization, and in-process inventory, from most critical to least critical for an organization and justify your ranking.

Answer:  Answers may vary, however from a project management standpoint, schedule slippage is a natural choice as most critical. A missed delivery date may result in a dissatisfied customer, loss of repeat business, penalties for late delivery, and possible missed sales and market share for new products and services. In-process inventory is cited as the reason for employing more resources and tends to have a cascading effect in creating still more inventory and possibly more missed deadlines. Perhaps the least critical parameter is the full utilization of all resources. If projects are completed on time and not all resources are fully utilized, there shouldn't be cause for concern. A company where everyone is working nonstop is likely involved in a great deal of busywork and is creating inventory simply to look busy.

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Critical Thinking

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

99) What is mathematical programming, how can it be applied to resource decisions, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of doing so?

Answer:  Math programming is sometimes used to generate optimal solutions to resource-constrained problems in the multi-project setting, just as it can be employed for single projects. The common goals of minimizing total development time and lateness and maximizing resource utilization across all projects can all be addressed by mathematical programming. The constraints of limited resources, precedence relationships among activities and projects, due dates, opportunities for activity splitting, concurrent and otherwise activity performance requirements, and resource substitution limit our ability to achieve the aforementioned goals. While mathematical programming can achieve an optimal solution to these problems, its use is limited due to the complexity of the problem, the large number of computational variables, and the time necessary to generate a sufficiently small set of options.

Diff: 2

Section:  12.5 Managing Resources in Multiproject Environments

LO:  12.5: Apply resource management within a multiproject environment.

Classification:  Application

AACSB:  Application of Knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

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