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Project Management 2016 - Pinto - Discussion and Case Study Guides - Chapter 13

MBA Project Management


Case study guides and online resources (2016)

Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 4th Edition, 2016, Jeffrey K. Pinto

Discussion and Case Study Guides




13.1 Why is the generic four-stage control cycle useful for understanding how to monitor and control projects?

One of the more difficult challenges of project control is finding a way to accurately measure progress. The four-stage cycle breaks project down into specific goals that can be measured against the project baseline. Deviations from the planned budget or time line can be identified and corrected swiftly. The fact that it is a cycle, implying repetition of the process, demonstrates the constant need for project monitoring and control measures. The final step in the cycle is to recycle the process resulting in continuous project control.

13.2 Why was one of the earliest project tracking devices referred to as an S-curve? Do you see value in the desire to link budget and schedule to view project performance?

This early device compared project time and cost graphically. The nature of project time and costs creates an S when the points are plotted on a graph, hence the term S-curve. There is value in linking the budget and schedule as an indicator of project performance. Following the S-curve, managers can get a rough depiction of expected progress. They can also see deviations of their own projects from the typically expected progression.

13.3 What are some of the key drawbacks with S-curve analysis?

The cause of S-curve drawbacks lies mainly in its lack of tying the schedule and budget to actual project progress. S-curves give little indication as to the cause of variations from projections. The S-curve simply points out deviation of cost in relation to time. It does not relate task completion to time or cost. Therefore, when a deviation is discovered, it is unknown whether the project is on target in terms of physical progress (i.e., whether work is being completed on, ahead, or behind the anticipated time and budget). Without knowing the cause of the variance, managers may make incorrect assumptions about the status of the project.
13.4 What are the benefits and drawbacks with the use of milestone analysis as a monitoring device?

Milestone analysis is beneficial in signaling the completion of important project stages and in creating distinctions between work packages. This increases the team’s ability to respond to change and create logical review points. Milestones also provide periodic goals that keep team members motivated. They represent significant accomplishments within the larger picture of the project. They also draw the team’s attention to the project’s status. Overall, the analysis provides a clear picture of project development. However, this form of analysis only allows for reactions to problems, not foresight or prevention. Problems are then allowed to compound and grow to the point of being unmanageable, resulting in a significantly over budget/schedule project.

13.5 It has been said that Earned Value Management (EVM) came about because the federal government often used “cost-plus” contractors with project organizations. Cost-plus contracting allows the contractor to recover full project development costs plus accumulated profit from these contracts. Why would requiring contractor firms to employ Earned Value Management help the government hold the line against project cost overruns?

Earned Value Management goes beyond reporting costs and progress. It links costs incurred to the time and budget baseline as well as to measurable performance milestones. By using EVM, the government is requiring that costs incurred during the project be directly tied to performance or progress of the project. The cost of the project is based on the budgeted cost of work performed. Therefore, negative or positive variances in performance are measured by the value of the work performed, not by the costs spent to complete the work. This allows companies to have a better understanding of what variances mean and their impact on the overall project. By understanding why the meaning of variances, managers are in a better position to take corrective action and keep the project on schedule.

13.6 What are the major advantages of using EVM as a project control mechanism? What do you perceive are its disadvantages?

The major advantages of EVM are that it is a comprehensive approach to measuring progress (i.e., it links cost, time, and completion), it uses objective criteria, and it enables more accurate information for decision making. Disadvantages may include the time consuming nature of analysis in large scale projects, the fact that mathematical formulas used for efficiency do not take into account the unique problems that stall the project or spike costs in one area (which may not lead to overall poor efficiency), and a lack of information regarding what type of corrective action may need to be taken.

13.7 Consider the major findings of the research on human factors in project implementation. What common themes seem to emerge from the research on behavioral issues as a critical element in determining project status?

The overarching theme is that in order to understand why a project is progressing the way it is, the project must be evaluated on human performance criteria. There are several human factors proven to be influential in project success. Some of the main areas that need to be measured are motivation, leadership, expertise, and top management support. The problem with this area of assessment is that it lacks a straightforward, objective system for measurement.

13.8 The 10 critical success factors have been applied in a variety of settings and project types. Consider a project with which you were involved. Did any of these factors emerge clearly as being the most important for the project’s success? Why?

This question requires students to give a specific answer based on their own experience with projects. Responses will vary depending on the project they select to respond to with the critical success factor model.

13.9 Identify the following terms: PV, EV, and AC. Why are these terms important? How do they relate to one another?

PV refers to planned value. This is the expected (planned) budget for all project activities that are planned to occur within a specific time period. Planned value is compared with earned value to determine the “real” progress that has been made on a project.

EV refers to earned value. Earned value is the budgeted cost of the work performed. This is important in establishing the true progress of the project and in understanding the meaning of variances from the project baseline.

AC stands for actual cost. These are the total costs incurred to complete project work.

13.10 What do the Schedule Performance Index (SPI) and the Cost Performance Index (CPI) demonstrate? How can a project manager use this information to estimate future project performance?

The indexes compare the planned value and actual cost of the project with the earned value (EV) measure to assess “true” project performance. The goal for an organization is to maintain SPI and BPI of 1.0 or higher, indicating that the project’s progress is ahead of schedule. The lower the project’s SPI and CPI are from 1.0, the less progress is being made on the project and the higher the likely overruns on schedule and budget we can anticipate.

13.11 Suppose the SPI is calculated as less than 1.0. Is this good news or bad news for the project? Why?

This would probably be viewed as bad news. A performance index of less than 1.0 indicates that the project, based on current EV and PV information, is not progressing at the planned rate. Depending on how much less than 1.0 the SPI is, the project’s schedule could either be marginally or significantly delayed.

Case Study 13.1 – The IT Department at Kimble College

This case identifies some of the serious problems and challenges involved in accurately tracking and determining the status of ongoing projects. In this case, there is no clear method for tracking and identifying project performance midstream. Either it succeeds, or (more often) it comes in very late and over budget. Dan Gray, the new head of the IT department, is not helping the process because he himself has a tendency to paint a rosy picture of his projects.


1) As a consultant monitoring this problem, what solutions will you propose? To what degree has Dan’s management style contributed to the problems?

This department needs to develop a monitoring and control system that allows project managers and administrators the ability to get real-time information on project development so there are no end-game surprises, like when a project is “suddenly” late and over budget. The use of earned value, milestones, or some other tracking mechanism is critical.

2) What are some of the types of project status information you could suggest the project team leaders begin to collect in order to assess the status of their projects?

The use of standard monitoring and control metrics such as milestones would begin to give some interim updates on project status. The problem with milestones is that they are a reactive measure (i.e., you know you missed one only when you miss one). On the other hand, earned value combined with frequent updates regarding project activity development can provide real-time information, as well as the ability to make reasonable projections into the future to avoid any project performance surprises.

3) How would you blend “hard data” and “managerial or behavioral” information to create a comprehensive view of the status of ongoing projects in the IT department at Kimble College?

Using concepts such as earned value, coupled with “softer” information provided by tools such as critical success factor analysis, will give project managers and top management a more comprehensive assessment of how projects are performing, how effectively project teams are functioning, and early-warning signs in cases where behavioral issues may be poised to negatively affect the project’s performance. “Hard data” and “soft data” each serve a purpose in detailing a clear view of the project’s current status as well as the status of project team performance, which is critical to the ability to successfully complete the project.

Case Study 13.2 – The Superconducting Supercollider

A famous example of a project that started with great fanfare and was quietly shut down was the Superconducting Supercollider. A particle physics structure as it was conceived, the project received funding after an intense (and some would argue, divisive) competition among various communities seeking to house the complex. A combination of incremental funding coupled with very poor project oversight led to allegations of shoddy work, inflated costs, and unnecessary expenses. All these problems contributed to a rapid decline in the attitude of the federal government toward keeping the project alive, and it was finally killed through withdrawal of funding. This case also makes an excellent discussion point for the argument that good project management also requires good stakeholder management; that is, keeping all the powerful project stakeholders happy and supportive of the project.


1) Suppose you were a consultant called into the project by the federal government in 1990, when it still seemed viable. Given the start to the project, what steps would you have taken to reintroduce some positive “spin” on the Superconducting Supercollider?

This question asks students to think about developing stakeholder management strategies for the project to enhance its reputation. Early warning signs were already emerging about poor cost control and slow, expensive development. However, there was still a window of time in which a canny project manager could have worked to reestablish support for the project from the key funding agencies and powerful congressional members. Students should consider steps to reengage these crucial supporters.

2) What were the warning signs of impending failure as the project progressed? Could these signs have been recognized so that problems could have been foreseen and addressed or, in your opinion, was the project simply impossible to achieve? Take a position and argue its merits.

There are several points of departure that students can adopt in answering this question. First, the divisive nature of the competition for the location of the Superconducting Supercollider was guaranteed to ensure that losing communities, and their federal representatives, would be upset and unlikely to give the project the benefit of the doubt downstream. Second, the way that project funding was initially doled out at a slow pace (due to Federal budget deficit concerns) made it difficult for the project to kick off strongly; in fact, they had to begin slowly and were never able to gain much momentum. Third, the project was also sold on the basis of European financial support, which never materialized. When this lack of funding became evident, it gave the project’s enemies powerful ammunition to move to kill the program.

The larger question regarding how much of these problems were foreseeable is a debatable issue and one that can generate a lot of in-class discussion as students take one position or the other. The ultimate goal of this component of the case is for them to develop some guidelines for their own careers in projects, in terms of how to uncover warning signs of project difficulties and what positive steps can be taken to address them before they become debilitating to the project.

3) Search for “superconducting supercollider” on the Internet. How do the majority of stories about the project present it? Given the negative perspective, what are the top three lessons to be learned from this project?

This is a summary question that asks students to consider the lessons to be learned from this disaster. Most Internet sites that address just the science underlying the Superconducting Supercollider offer a mixed view of it and are supportive of the particle physics science that drove its development. Federal watchdog groups, on the other hand, view the project as a classic case of governmental waste with nothing to show for it.

Case 13.3 – Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner: Failure to Launch (with update)

This case is a great current example of a very expensive and famous project initiated by one of the most competent project management organizations in the world, Boeing, with a huge initial budget, a great deal of fanfare and user enthusiasm, leading to a record number of advance orders. Since its inception, the Boeing 787 Dreamliner has experienced a host of quality problems, some related to the advanced systems and body construction, and others the result of poor supply quality and integration problems. The update gives the current state of the Dreamliner project, based on current sales and discounts Boeing has had to offer to buyers to maintain their original contracts.


1) In evaluating the development of the 787 Dreamliner, what are some of the unique factors in this project that make it so difficult to accurately monitor and control?

One big issue was the new technologies that went into the development and building process, including composite materials in the wings and body that were a brand new innovation with the 787. Also, coordinating thousands of suppliers across an enormous supply chain made the actual systems integration and testing procedure onerous and error-prone. Because so much new technology needs to be tested on-site, it has made it very difficult to accurately track the project for control purposes.

2) Comment on the following statement: “In trying to control development of the 787, Boeing should have been monitoring and controlling the performance of its suppliers.” Do you agree or disagree that Boeing’s project management should have been fully extended to its suppliers? Why?

This argument can be illustrated by the consistent failures of the batteries on the airplane, all supplied by a Japanese subcontractor. The challenges of trying to maintain quality control while also determining how so many new high-tech systems will align and “cooperate” with each other in the aircraft has been a huge challenge.

3) As you read the case, what do you see as the critical issues that appear to be causing the majority of the project delivery and quality problems?

This question challenges the students to drill down to root cause analysis for the case. Using a Pareto example, what are the 20% of actions or issues that have led to the majority of the problems to date? Some would argue that it is the result of trying to put too many new technologies together on one aircraft, and that they should have added incremental improvements to future classes of 787. Others will argue that this was ultimately a failure of vendor qualification and project supply chain management. The key is to get students to use the Internet to find stories and articles that point to the various flaws in the aircraft and with the development process.


13.1 Using the following information, develop a simple S-curve representation of the expected cumulative budget expenditures for this project. (Figures are in thousands.)

Duration (in days)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Activities 4 8 12 20 10 8 6 2

Cumulative 4 12 24 44 54 62 68 70


13.2 Suppose the expenditure figures in Problem 1 were modified as follows. (Figures are in thousands.)
Duration (in days)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Activities 4 8 10 14 20 24 28 8

Cumulative 4 12 22 36 56 80 108 116

Draw this S-curve. What does the new S-curve diagram represent? How would you explain the reason for the different, non-S-shape of the curve?


The non-S-shape of the curve reflects the fact that project expenditures occurred later in the project, suggesting that the project’s activities may not have followed the traditional life cycle model for resource usage.
13.3 Assume the following information. (Figures are in thousands.)

Budgeted Costs for Sample Project
Duration (in weeks)
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Total
Design 6 2 1
Engineer 5 10 12 6
Install 7 15 30 8
Test 1 5 8 5 2
Total Monthly Cumul.
a. Calculate the monthly budget and the monthly cumulative budgets for the project.
b. Draw a project S-curve identifying the relationship between the project’s budget baseline and its schedule.

Budgeted Costs for Sample Project
Duration (in weeks)
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Total
Design 6 2 1
Engineer 5 10 12 6
Install 7 15 30 8
Test 1 5 8 5 2
Total Monthly Cumul. 6 13 31 58 95 108 116 121 123




b. S-Curve rendering – Using Excel spreadsheet option

13.4 Use the following information to construct a “Tracking Gantt” chart using MS Project.

Activities Duration Preceding Activities
A 5 days none
B 4 days A
C 3 days A
D 6 days B, C
E 4 days B
F 2 days D, E

Highlight project status on day 14 using the tracking option and assuming that all tasks to date have been completed on time. Print the output file.



Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

13.5 Using the information in Problem 4, highlight the project’s status on day 14 but assume that activity D has not yet begun. What would the new tracking Gantt chart show? Print the output file.


Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

13.6 Use the following table to calculate project schedule variance based on the units listed. (Figures are in thousands.)

Schedule Variance Work Units
A B C D E F Total
Planned Value 20 15 10 25 20 20 110
Earned Value 10 10 10 20 25 25
Schedule variance


Schedule Variance Work Units
A B C D E F Total
Planned Value 20 15 10 25 20 20 110
Earned Value 10 10 10 20 25 25 100
Schedule variance -10 -5 0 -5 5 5 -10

13.7 Using the data in the table below, complete the table by calculating the cumulative planned and cumulative actual monthly budgets through the end of June. Complete the earned value column on the right. Assume the project is planned for a 12-month duration and $250,000 budget.

Activity Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Plan % C Value

Staffing 8 7 15 100

Blueprinting 4 6 10 100

Development 2 8 10 70

Full Design 3 8 10 21 67

Construction 2 30 32 25

Transfer 10 10 0

Monthly Plan
Monthly Actual 10 15 6 14 9 40
Cumul. Actual


Activity Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Plan % C Value

Staffing 8 7 15 100 15

Blueprinting 4 6 10 100 10

Development 2 8 10 70 7

Full Design 3 8 10 21 67 14

Construction 2 30 32 25 8

Transfer 10 10 0 0

Σ = 54

Monthly Plan 8 11 8 11 10 50
Cumulative 8 19 27 38 48 98
Monthly Actual 10 15 6 14 9 40
Cumul. Actual 10 25 31 45 54 94

13.8 Using the data from Problem 7, calculate the following values:

Schedule Variances
Planned Value (PV)
Earned Value (EV)
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
Estimated Time to Completion
Cost Variances
Actual Cost of Work Performed (AC)
Earned Value (EV)
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
Estimated Cost to Completion


Schedule Variances
Planned Value (PV) 98
Earned Value (EV) 54
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) EV/PV = 54/98 = .55 Estimated Time to Completion (1/.55) x 12 mos. = 21.75 mos.
Cost Variances
Actual Cost of Work Performed (AC) 94
Earned Value (EV) 54
Cost Performance Index (CPI) EV/AC = 54/94 = .58
Estimated Cost to Completion (1/.58) x $250,000 = $434,622


13.9 You are calculating the estimated time to completion for a project of 15 months’ duration and a budgeted cost of $350,000. Assuming the following information, calculate the Schedule Performance Index and estimated time to completion. (Figures are in thousands.)

Schedule Variances
Planned Value of Work Scheduled (PV) 65

Earned Value (EV) 58

Schedule Performance Index

Estimated Time to Completion


Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = 58/65 = .89

Estimated Time to Completion = (1/.89) x 15 months = 16.85 months, or almost 2 months behind schedule.

13.10 Suppose for Problem 9 that your PV was 75 and your EV was 80. Recalculate the SPI and estimated time to completion for the project with this new data.


Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = 80/75 = 1.07

Estimated Time to Completion = (1/1.07) x 15 months = 14.02 months, or approximately 1 month ahead of schedule.

13.11 You have collected the following data based on three months of your project’s performance. Complete the table. Calculate cumulative CPI (CPIC). How is the project performing after these three months? Is the trend positive or negative?
January $30,000 $35,000
February $95,000 $100,000
March $125,500 $138,000


January $30,000 $30,000 $35,000 $35,000 0.86 0.86
February $95,000 $125,000 $100,000 $135,000 0.95 0.93
March $125,500 $250,500 $138,000 $273,000 0.91 0.92
Overall, the project is performing below required levels (assuming CPI should equal 1.0 or higher). However, the original poor value is trending moderately better (moving from 0.86 to 0.92 over three months). The trend is positive but the CPI is still under-performing.

13.12 You have collected EV, AC, and PV data from your project for a five-month period. Complete the table. Calculate SPIC and CPIC. Compare the cost and schedule performance for the project on a month-by-month basis and cumulatively. How would you assess the performance of the project? (All values are in thousands $.)
April 8 10 7
May 17 18 16
June 25 27 23
July 15 18 15
August 7 9 8


April 8 8 10 10 7 7 1.14 1.14 0.80 0.80
May 17 25 18 28 16 23 1.06 1.09 0.94 0.89
June 25 50 27 55 23 46 1.09 1.09 0.93 0.91
July 15 65 18 73 15 61 1.00 1.07 0.83 0.89
August 7 72 9 82 8 69 0.88 1.04 0.78 0.88

In analyzing trends for this project, we see from the cumulative columns that the project’s SPI started very strong and has been gradually slipping over the course of the five months recorded, going from 1.14 to 1.04. On the other hand, cumulative CPI has actually been trending more positively in recent months, moving from the original 0.80 to 0.88. Although it is still below our threshold level of 1.0, CPI has shown marginal improvement.

13.13 Assume you have collected the following data for your project. Its budget is $75,000 and it is expected to last four months. After two months, you have calculated the following information about the project:

PV = $45,000
EV = $38,500
AC = $37,000

Calculate the SPI and CPI. Based on these values, estimate the time and budget necessary to complete the project? How would you evaluate these findings? Are they good news or bad news?)


SPI = EV/PV = $38,500/45,000 = .86
CPI = EV/AC = $38,500/37,000 = 1.04
Estimated Time to Completion = (1/.86) x 4 months = 4.68 months
Estimated Cost to Completion = (1/1.04) x $75,000 = $72,078

The findings are a bit of good news and a bit of bad. The good news is that your estimated cost to completion is lower than the original budget. However, the bad news is that the project is behind schedule and is likely to take 4.65 months to complete, rather than the originally planned 4 months.

13.14 (Optional – Based on Earned Schedule discussion in Appendix 13.1) Suppose you have a project with a Budget at Completion (BAC) of $250,000 and a projected length of 10 months. After tracking the project for six months, you have collected the information in the table below.

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
PV ($) 25,000 40,000 70,000 110,000 150,000 180,000
EV ($) 20,000 32,000 60,000 95,000 123,000 151,000
SV ($) -5,000 -8,000 -10,000 -15,000 -27,000 -29,000
SPI ($) 0.80 0.80 0.86 0.86 0.82 0.84
ES (mo.) 0.80 1.47 2.67 3.63 4.33 5.03
SV (t) -0.20 -0.53 -0.33 -0.37 -0.67 -0.97
SPI (t) 0.80 0.74 0.89 0.91 0.87 0.84

a. Complete the table. How do Earned Value SPI (based on $) and Earned Schedule SPI differ?
Answer: See completed table above (answers in bold). The SPI values are relatively similar, the ES SPI figures are initially more positive than earned value figures.
b. Calculate the scheduled variance for the project for both Earned Value and Earned Schedule. How do the values differ?
Answer: IEAC for Earned Value is: (1/.0.84) x 10 mos. = 11.90 months
IEAC (t) for Earned Schedule is (10/0.84) = 11.90 months
The results are the same in this case; Earned Value Schedule variance is $-29,000 and Earned Schedule variance is -0.97.


Exercise 13.1
Using the following data, enter the various tasks and create a Gantt chart using MS Project. Assign the individuals responsible for each activity, and once you have completed the network, update it with the percentage complete tool. What does the MS Project output file look like?

Activity Duration Predecessors Resource % Complete
A. Research product 6 - Tom Allen 100
B. Interview customers 4 A Liz Watts 75
C. Design survey 5 A Rich Watkins 50
D. Collect data 4 B, C Gary Sims 0


Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.


Exercise 13.2
Now, suppose we assign costs to each of the resources in the following amounts:

Resource Cost
Tom Allen $50/hour
Liz Watts $55/hour
Rich Watkins $18/hour
Gary Sims $12.50/hour

Create the resource usage statement for the project as of the most recent update. What are project expenses per task to date?


Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

Exercise 13.3
Use MS Project to create a Project Summary Report of the most recent project status.


Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.

Exercise 13.4

Using the data shown in the network precedence table below, enter the various tasks in MS Project. Then select a date approximately halfway through the overall project duration, and update all tasks in the network to show current status. You may assume that Activities A through I are now 100% completed. What does the tracking Gantt look like?

Project - Remodeling an Appliance
Activity Duration Predecessors
A. Conduct competitive analysis 3 -
B. Review field sales reports 2 -
C. Conduct tech capabilities assessment 5 -
D. Develop focus group data 2 A, B, C
E. Conduct telephone surveys 3 D
F. Identify relevant specification improvements 3 E
G. Interface with marketing staff 1 F
H. Develop engineering specifications 5 G
I. Check and debug designs 4 H
J. Develop testing protocol 3 G
K. Identify critical performance levels 2 J
L. Assess and modify product components 6 I, K
M. Conduct capabilities assessment 12 L
N. Identify selection criteria 3 M
O. Develop RFQ 4 M
P. Develop production master schedule 5 N, O
Q. Liaison with sales staff 1 P
R. Prepare product launch 3 Q



Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation.


Exercise 13.5
Use the following information to construct a Gantt chart in MS Project. What is the expected duration of the project (critical path)? Assume the project is halfway finished in terms of the schedule (day 16 completed) but activity completion percentages are as shown. Construct a tracking Gantt chart for the project (be sure to show the percentage complete for each activity). What would it look like?
Activity Duration (in Days) Predecessors % Completed (Day 16)
A 6 None 100%
B 2 A 100%
C 4 A 100%
D 7 C 14%
E 10 D 0%
F 6 B, C 33%
G 5 E, F 0%
The project’s duration is 32 days and the critical path is A-C-D-E-G. The tracking Gantt view of the project, based on the 16th day in development and the % of completed values, would be:


Exercise 13.6
Using the date for Problem 13.5, add the resource assignments to each of the activities and input their hourly rates as shown. Construct an earned value chart for the project. Which activities have negative variances? What is the estimate at completion (EAC) for the project? (Hint: Remember to click “Set baseline” prior to creating EVM table. The EVM table is found by clicking on the “View” tab, then “Tables,” then “Other Tables”).
Resource Name Hourly Rate ($)
Josh (Activity A) 12.00
Mary (Activity B) 13.50
Evan (Activity C) 10.00
Adrian (Activity D) 22.00
Susan (Activity E) 18.50
Aaron (Activity F) 17.00
Katie (Activity G) 32.00
Partial table showing cost and schedule variances for activities D and F is shown here.








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